Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among men aged 18 to 64 years: an association with somatic disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
ABSTRACT Standardized diagnostic criteria determined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were used to investigate the current prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Possible associations between RLS and neuropsychiatric and somatic complaints were also investigated. A random sample of 4,000 men living in central Sweden were sent a questionnaire that included questions about sleep habits, symptoms of sleepiness, and somatic and neuropsychiatric complaints. Four symptom questions accepted as minimal diagnostic criteria for RLS were also included. Odds (OR) ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) for different variables were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression; 5.8% of the men suffered from RLS. The prevalence of RLS increased with age. Sleep-related complaints were more frequent among the RLS sufferers. Complaints of headache at awakening and daytime headache were reported three to five times more frequently among RLS sufferers and there was a tendency toward reported social isolation related to RLS. Subjects with RLS more frequently reported depressed mood (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8), and complained more often of reduced libido (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3). RLS sufferers more frequently reported hypertension (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.4) and heart problems (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.3). Results show that restless legs syndrome is common among men. It is hypothesized that RLS may be associated with several somatic and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: The Consensus on restless legs syndrome is an effort of neurologists from several Brazilian states, which tirelessly reviewed the literature of recent years in search of evidence, both in regard to diagnosis and treatment, according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. RESUMO O Consenso em síndrome das pernas inquietas contou com a participação de neurologistas de vários estados brasileiros, os quais incansavelmente revisaram a literatura dos últimos anos em busca de evidências, tanto no que se refere ao diagnóstico como ao tratamento, de acordo com a Classificação do Centro de Oxford para Medicina Baseada em Evidências. Palavras-chave: pernas inquietas, critérios diagnósticos, tratamento. Protocols or guidelines presented here seek to systematize the available knowledge and offer a gold standard pattern of clinical management, scientifically safer and consistent for restless legs syndrome. They are evidence-based recommendations, developed from a review of an updated scientific literature.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess the frequency, impact, and medical response to the restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a large multi-national primary care population.Method: Questionnaire surveys of matched patients and primary care physicians (PCPs) in five modern industrialized western countries.Results: An RLS screening questionnaire was completed by 23,052 patients: 2223 (9.6%) reported weekly RLS symptoms; 1557 of these patients had medical follow-up questionnaires completed both by themselves and by their physician. An RLS sufferer subgroup (n=551) likely warranting treatment was defined as reporting at least twice weekly symptoms with appreciable negative impact on quality of life. A total of 88.4% of RLS sufferers reported at least one sleep-related symptom. Most reported impaired sleep consistent with a diagnosis of insomnia. Out of 551 sufferers, 357 (64.8%) reported consulting a physician about their RLS symptoms, but only 46 of these 357 (12.9%) reported having been given a diagnosis. PCPs reported that 209 (37.9%) RLS sufferers consulted them about RLS symptoms, but only 52 (24.9%) were given an RLS diagnosis. In most countries, sufferers, regardless of diagnosis, were prescribed therapies not known to be effective in RLS.Conclusions: RLS significantly impairs patients' lives, often by severely disrupting sleep. The marked under-diagnosis and inappropriate treatment of RLS indicates that PCPs need better education about this condition. Recognizing how often disrupted sleep results from RLS should improve diagnosis.Sleep Medicine 05/2004; 5(3):237-246. DOI:10.1016/S1389-9457(04)00062-0 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensory-motor disorder characterized by discomfort of and urge to move the legs, primarily during rest or inactivity, partial or total relief with movement, with presence or worsening exclusively in the evening. It is a relatively common but frequently unrecognized disorder, with a prevalence ranging from 2.5 to 15% of the general population, increasing with age and with a female preponderance. The diagnosis is clinical but polysomnography is useful to determine its profound impact on sleep (difficulties in sleep onset, maintaining sleep during the night, and sleep fragmentation) and for the evidence of periodic legs movements during sleep and wake. RLS is generally idiopathic, with familial association in 40–60% of the cases, but may also be symptomatic of such associated conditions (secondary forms) as peripheral neuropathies, uremia, iron deficiency (with or without anemia), diabetes, Parkinson's disease and pregnancy. Response to dopaminergic drugs indicates that dopamine receptors are implicated, and although much progress has been made in diagnosis and treatment in the last decade, more is needed for complete elucidation of the etiology and pathophysiology of RLS.Sleep Medicine 05/2004; 5(3):293-299. DOI:10.1016/S1389-9457(04)00016-4 · 3.10 Impact Factor