PZR is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell surface protein containing a pair of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. As a glycoprotein, PZR displays a strong association with concanavalin A (ConA), a member of the plant lectin family. Treatment of several cell lines with ConA caused tyrosine phosphorylation of a major cellular protein. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that this protein corresponded to PZR. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR was accompanied by recruitment of SHP-2 and was inhibited by PP1, a selective inhibitor of the Src family tyrosine kinases. Furthermore, c-Src was constitutively associated with PZR and was activated upon treatment of cells with ConA. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR was markedly enhanced in v-Src-transformed NIH-3T3 cells and was predominant in Escherichia coli cells co-expressing c-Src. Expression of an intracellular domain-truncated form of PZR in HT-1080 cells affected cell morphology and had a dominant negative effect on ConA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PZR, activation of c-Src, and agglutination of the cells. Together, the data indicate that PZR is a major receptor of ConA and has an important role in cell signaling via c-Src. Considering the various biological activities of ConA, the study of PZR may have major therapeutic implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-zero related (PZR) is an immunoglobulin V (IgV)-type immunoreceptor with two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). PZR interacts with Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2) via its tyrosine-phosphorylated ITIMs, for which c-Src is a putative kinase. Towards elucidating PZR function in endothelial cells (ECs), the authors cloned PZR from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and characterized it. Mature bovine PZR had 94.8% and 92.7% sequence identity with canine and human proteins, respectively, and the two ITIM sequences were conserved among higher vertebrates. PZR was expressed in many cell types and was localized to cell contacts and intracellular granules in BAECs and mesothelioma (REN) cells. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that PZR, Grb-2-associated binder-1 (Gab1), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) were three major SHP-2-binding proteins in BAECs. H(2)O(2) enhanced PZR tyrosine phosphorylation and PZR/SHP-2 interaction in ECs in a dose-and time-dependent manner. To see if tyrosine kinases other than Src are also capable of phosphorylating PZR, the authors cotransfected HEK293 cells with PZR and one of several tyrosine kinases and found that c-Src, c-Fyn, c-Lyn, Csk, and c-Abl, but not c-Fes, phosphorylated PZR and increased PZR/SHP-2 interaction. These results suggest that PZR is a cell adhesion protein that may be involved in SHP-2-dependent signaling at interendothelial cell contacts.
"This 43 kD transmembrane protein is composed of a single extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, a transmembrane (TM) region, and an 80 amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The latter contains two intracellular Ig immunoreceptor tyrosinebased inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) [Zhao et al., 2002; Zannettino et al., 2003]. These ITIMs are essential for the recruitment of phosphorylated SHP-2 and, subsequently, for activation of the SHP-2 protein phosphatase. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human P zero-related protein (hPZR) has a unique function in regulating cell migration. This activity is dependent on both its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motif (ITIM) and its interaction with the tyrosine protein phosphatase, src homology phosphatase-2 (SHP-2). Here, using in silico and cDNA cloning approaches, we identify the murine ITIM-containing hPZR ortholog, mPZR, together with its ITIM-less isoform, mPZRb. We demonstrate that, like hPZR, these type 1 integral murine transmembrane isoforms are derived by differential splicing from a single gene transcription unit on mouse chromosome 1, and differ only in the sequence of their cytoplasmic domains. Importantly, mPZR mimicks hPZR functionally by accelerating SHP-2-mediated cell migration on fibronectin. Interestingly, we further demonstrate that although neither mPZR nor mPZRb is expressed in murine pluripotent embryonic stem cells, they first appear at approximately day 3 of blastocyst formation in vivo and of embryoid body formation in vitro. These studies thus provide the basis for defining the function of the mPZR isoforms in vivo, particularly with respect to their roles in regulating SHP-2-dependent cell migration during development.
"ace receptors, is the most extensively investigated member of the lectin family of plant proteins which displays high affinity for terminal α -d-mannosyl and α− d-glucosyl residues (Gunther et al . 1973). Con A exhibits cell agglutinating and mitogenic activities and induces apoptosis (Tamura et al . 1995; Cribbs et al . 1996; Akhand et al . 1997; Zhao et al . 2002; Amin et al . 2007). In addition, Con A is widely used as a positive control to study T-cell activation and as a model to study the regulatory mechanisms that control secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (Tamura et al . 1995; Sein et al . 2000; Amin et al . 2003a). Despite its significance, the precise "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SHPS-1/SIRPalpha1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) super family. In the present study, we show that SHPS-1 strongly associates with Concanavalin A (Con A), a plant lectin obtained from jack beans. Further studies with SHPS-1 mutants reveal that the extracellular domain of SHPS-1 containing the Ig sequence is responsible for its association with Con A. Con A treatment induces cross-linking and multimerization of the SHPS-1 protein in the plasma membrane, accompanied by its tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of SHP-2. In contrast, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), another lectin obtained from castor bean, does not bind or activate tyrosine phosphorylation of SHPS-1. Moreover, Con A activates Akt in a SHP-2-dependent manner. Treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with Con A induces secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a phenomenon that is inhibited in cells expressing YF mutant of SHPS-1, a dominant negative form of Akt or in cells pre-treated with an Akt inhibitor, LY294002 or extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk) inhibitor, U0126. In addition, expression of the YF mutant of SHPS-1 inhibits Con A-dependent activation of Akt and Erk kinases. Taken together, our results suggest that SHPS-1 is a receptor for Con A that mediates Con A-dependent MMP-9 secretion through SHP-2-promoted activation of both Akt and Erk pathways.
Genes to Cells 10/2007; 12(9):1023-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2007.01115.x · 2.81 Impact Factor
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