Schwann cell adhesion to a novel heparan sulfate binding site in the N-terminal domain of alpha 4 type V collagen is mediated by syndecan-3.
ABSTRACT Previously we reported that type V collagen synthesized by Schwann cells inhibits the outgrowth of axons from rat embryo dorsal root ganglion neurons but promotes Schwann cell migration (Chernousov, M. A., Stahl, R. C., and Carey, D. J. (2001) J. Neurosci. 21, 6125-6135). Analysis of Schwann cell adhesion and spreading on dishes coated with various type V collagen domains revealed that Schwann cells adhered effectively only to the non-collagenous N-terminal domain (NTD) of the alpha4(V) collagen chain. Schwann cell adhesion to alpha4(V)-NTD induced actin cytoskeleton assembly, tyrosine phosphorylation, and activation of the Erk1/Erk2 protein kinases. Adhesion to alpha4(V)-NTD is cell type-specific because rat fibroblasts failed to adhere to dishes coated with this polypeptide. Schwann cell adhesion and spreading on alpha4(V)-NTD was strongly inhibited by soluble heparin (IC(50) approximately 30 ng/ml) but not by chondroitin sulfate. Analysis of the heparin binding activities of a series of recombinant alpha4(V)-NTD fragments and deletion mutants identified a highly basic region (not present in other type V collagen NTD) as the site responsible for high affinity heparin binding. Schwann cells adhered poorly to dishes coated with alpha4(V)-NTD that lacked the heparin binding site and failed to spread or assemble organized actin-cytoskeletal structures. Soluble alpha4(V)-NTD polypeptide that contained the heparin binding site inhibited spreading of Schwann cells on dishes coated with alpha4(V)-NTD. Affinity chromatography of Schwann cell detergent extracts on a column of immobilized alpha4(V)-NTD resulted in the isolation of syndecan-3, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Together, these results suggest that Schwann cells bind to collagen type V via syndecan-3-dependent binding to a novel high affinity heparin binding site in the alpha4(V)-NTD.
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ABSTRACT: Minor fibrillar collagen types V and XI, are those less abundant than the fibrillar collagen types I, II and III. The alpha chains share a high degree of similarity with respect to protein sequence in all domains except the variable region. Genomic variation and, in some cases, extensive alternative splicing contribute to the unique sequence characteristics of the variable region. While unique expression patterns in tissues exist, the functions and biological relevance of the variable regions have not been elucidated. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about expression patterns and biological functions of the collagen types V and XI alpha chains. Analysis of biochemical similarities among the peptides encoded by each exon of the variable region suggests the potential for a shared function. The alternative splicing, conservation of biochemical characteristics in light of low sequence conservation, and evidence for intrinsic disorder, suggest modulation of binding events between the surface of collagen fibrils and surrounding extracellular molecules as a shared function.Protein & Cell 06/2012; 3(6):419-33.
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve blocks with local anesthetics (LAs) are commonly performed to provide surgical anesthesia or postoperative analgesia. Nerve injury resulting in persistent numbness or weakness is a potentially serious complication. Local anesthetics have previously been shown to damage neuronal and Schwann cells via several mechanisms. We sought to test the hypothesis that LAs are toxic to Schwann cells and that the degree of toxicity is directly related to the concentration of LA and duration of exposure. Intraneural injection of LAs has been shown to produce nerve injury. We sought to test the hypothesis that a prolonged extraneural infusion of LA can also produce injury. Schwann cells cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerves were incubated with LAs at different concentrations (10, 100, 500, and 1000 μM), and each concentration was assessed for toxicity after 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Local anesthetics tested were lidocaine, mepivacaine, chloroprocaine, ropivacaine, and bupivacaine. Cell death was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase release measured by optical density.In a separate experiment, a microcatheter was placed along the sciatic nerves of Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0.9% saline (n = 8) or bupivacaine (0.5%, n = 4; 0.75%, n = 4) via the perineural catheters for 72 hours. The rats were then killed, and their nerves sectioned and stained for analysis. Sections were stained for myelin and with an antimacrophage (CD68) antibody. None of the LAs tested produced significant Schwann cell death at very low concentrations (10 μM, or 0.0003%) even after prolonged exposure. With prolonged exposure (48 or 72 hrs) to high concentrations (1000 μM, or 0.03%), all of the LAs tested produced significant Schwann cell death (increased lactate dehydrogenase release relative to control as measured by optical density, 0.384-0.974; all P values < 0.001). Only bupivacaine produced significant cell death (0.482, P < 0.001) after prolonged exposure to low concentrations (100 μM, or 0.003%). At intermediate concentrations (500 μM, or 0.015%), cell death was more widespread with bupivacaine (0.768, P < 0.001) and ropivacaine (0.675, P < 0.001) than the other agents (0.204-0.368; all P values < 0.001). Prolonged extraneural exposure of rat sciatic nerves to bupivacaine caused significant demyelination and infiltration of nerves with inflammatory cells. Local anesthetics induce Schwann cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Bupivacaine and ropivacaine have greater toxicity at intermediate concentrations, and prolonged exposure to bupivacaine produces significant toxicity even at low concentrations. Brief exposure to high concentrations of bupivacaine damages Schwann cells. Prolonged extraneural infusion of bupivacaine results in nerve injury.Regional anesthesia and pain medicine 08/2011; 36(5):444-51. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laminins and collagens are extracellular matrix proteins that play essential roles in peripheral nervous system development. Laminin signals regulate Schwann cell proliferation and survival as well as actin cytoskeleton dynamics, which are essential steps for radial sorting and myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells. Collagen and their receptors promote Schwann cell adhesion, spreading, and myelination as well as neurite outgrowth. In this article, we will review the recent advances in the studies of laminin and collagen function in Schwann cell development.Glia 10/2008; 56(14):1498-507. · 5.07 Impact Factor