Causes of eating disorders.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Erindale Campus, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
Annual Review of Psychology (Impact Factor: 20.53). 02/2002; 53:187-213. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self-criticism, all constituted risk factors for compulsive buying, whilst the increased age and the use of the active coping strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring were protection factors. Our findings revealed a substantial prevalence of compulsive buying. Additionally, the relevance of sociodemographic determinants, psychological distress, and coping strategies in this problem was confirmed. The establishment of a risk profile for compulsive buying based on these different sets of determinants would likely contribute to the development of more effective intervention programs.
    BMC Psychiatry 04/2014; 14(1):101. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study here presented aims to investigate the links between quality of family relationships and some prodromes in eating disorders. A sample of 1,083 subjects took part in the study by filling PBI, FACES and EDI questionnaires. In order to clarify the role played by family relationships in the onset of EDs, two subgroups (high risk–low risk) were individuated by using the EDI cut-offs as discriminator factors and tested separately from the main sample. The results revealed some significant relationships between the analysed dimensions. It was shown that by increasing the values from the parents’ caring style scale and the real family’s cohesiveness scale the probability for subjects to fall into the high risk group decreases. Also, by increasing the family adaptability’s values, an increase of the probability for subjects to fall into the high risk group occurs. These results support the implementation of preventive and therapeutic plans to promote health and quality of life of adolescence.
    Applied Research in Quality of Life 06/2014; · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 08/2014; 2(22):1-14. · 3.03 Impact Factor


Available from