Causes of eating disorders.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Erindale Campus, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
Annual Review of Psychology (Impact Factor: 20.53). 02/2002; 53:187-213. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control.

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    ABSTRACT: RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Les fluctuations observées au niveau de la santé mentale peuvent aussi bien contribuer à la saine alimentation qu'aller à l'encontre de celle-ci. On observe en effet une relation bidirectionnelle entre l'alimentation et la santé mentale. Ainsi, l'humeur ou l'état psychologique peuvent influencer ce qu'on mange, de même que les quantités consommées, tandis que l'alimentation influence également l'humeur et le bien-être psychologique. Par conséquent, dans une optique de promotion de la saine alimentation et d'élaboration de stratégies en ce sens, il est important de bien comprendre les diverses connexions entre la santé mentale et la saine alimentation. Méthodologie : De façon à mieux comprendre le sujet en titre, nous avons examiné, d'une part, les études portant sur les différentes réactions individuelles face à l'alimentation ainsi que les influences de l'humeur, de divers facteurs émotionnels, sociaux et collectifs sur le choix des aliments et les quantités consommées, dans le but de vérifier comment la santé mentale influence l'alimentation, plus particulièrement chez les adolescents et les adultes. D'autre part, nous avons examiné les études portant sur la relation entre l'alimentation et la santé mentale, c.-à-d. sur la façon de se sentir dans sa peau (bien ou mal) suite à l'ingestion de certains aliments ou de quantités spécifiques d'aliments. Conclusions : Aussi bien le fait de trop manger que de ne pas manger suffisamment entraîne des effets complexes, ces deux comportements pouvant procurer un meilleur sentiment de bien-être ou, au contraire, engendrer de la culpabilité ou un sentiment de manque, de dépression ou d'anxiété. Nous avons tenté d'identifier à la fois l'état actuel des connaissances et les lacunes à combler à cet égard par rapport à ces deux types de comportements opposés.
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    ABSTRACT: In medical and psychological literature bulimia is commonly described as a mental illness. However, from a social constructionist perspective the meaning of bulimia will always be socially and historically situated and multiple. Thus, there is always the possibility for other understandings or constructions of bulimia to circulate in our culture, with each having distinct real-world implications for those engaging in bulimic behaviors; for instance, they might potentially influence likelihood of help-seeking and the success of treatment. This study used Q methodology to explore culturally-available constructions of bulimia nervosa. Seventy-seven adults with varying experience of eating disorders took part in this Q methodological study. Online, they were asked to rank-order 42 statements about bulimia, and then answer a series of questions about the task and their knowledge of bulimia. A by-person factor analysis was then conducted, with factors extracted using the centroid technique and a varimax rotation. Six factors satisfied selection criteria and were subsequently interpreted. Factor A, "bulimia as uncontrolled behavior", positions bulimia as a behavioral rather than psychological issue. Factor B, entitled "bulimia is a distressing mental illness", reflects an understanding of bulimic behaviors as a dysfunctional coping mechanism, which is often found in psychological literature. Other perspectives position bulimia as about "self-medicating with food" (Factor C), "the pathological pursuit of thinness" (Factor D), "being the best at being thin" (Factor E), or as "extreme behavior vs. mentally ill" (Factor F). These constructions have distinct implications for the subjective experience and behavior of those engaged in bulimic behaviors, with some constructions possibly being more useful in terms of help-seeking (Factor B), while others position these individuals in ways that may be distressing, for instance as shallow (Factor D) or to blame (Factor E). This study has identified a range of distinct constructions of bulimia. These constructions are considered to have implications for the behaviors and experiences of those engaging in bulimic behaviors. As such, further research into constructions of bulimia may illuminate factors that influence help-seeking and the self-perceptions of such individuals.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 08/2014; 2(22):1-14. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a survey was carried out on 300 students in Korea Culinary Arts Science High School located in Gyeonggi-do from August 1 to August 30, 2011 to figure out how the control of high school students' eating behavior affects the change of their psychological achievement. Analysis showed that attitude toward eating behavior, and perceived behavior that recognize this and act, as eating habits for control of their eating behavior, are the most control factors of eating behavior. It says that the right perception of customary attitude and the correction of habits according to the exposure and performance of repetitive eating behaviors are important. Consequently, an ordinarily regular norm as a social norm, or a rule around it won't act as big positive factors.
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition. 12/2011; 24(4).


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