Causes of eating disorders.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Erindale Campus, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
Annual Review of Psychology (Impact Factor: 20.53). 02/2002; 53:187-213. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control.

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    ABSTRACT: We sought to estimate prevalences of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) in bulimic and normal-eater control groups, and to replicate previous findings linking CEA to severity of eating symptoms in BN. We also examined potential mediators of the link between CEA and disordered eating. Women diagnosed with a bulimic disorder (n = 176) and normal-eater women (n = 139) were assessed for childhood traumata, eating-disorder (ED) symptoms and psychopathological characteristics (ineffectiveness, perfectionism, depression, and affective instability) thought to be potential mediators of interest. CEA was more prevalent in the bulimic than in the nonbulimic group, and predicted severity of some eating-symptom indices. Ineffectiveness and affective instability both mediated relationships between CEA and selected ED symptoms. We found CEA to predict eating pathology through mediating effects of ineffectiveness and affective instability. CEA might influence severity of ED symptoms by impacting an individual's self-esteem and capacity for affect regulation.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 06/2011; 45(3):326-32. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In the world of today’s of ever-briefer therapies and interventions, people often seem more interested in outcome than process. This paper focuses on the processes used by a multidisciplinary team in the journey from opposition to change to recovery from eating disorders. The approach outlined is most relevant to those with severe and enduring illness. Methods This paper describes a five-phase journey from eating-disorder disability and back to health as it occurs for patients in a community-based facility. This integrative model uses narrative and motivational interviewing counseling weaved into traditional approaches. It approaches illness from a transdiagnostic orientation, addressing the dynamics and needs demanded by the comorbidities and at the same time responding effectively in a way that reduces the influence of the eating disorder. The treatment described involves a five-phase journey: Preliminary phase (choosing a shelter of understanding); Phase 1: from partial recognition to full acknowledgment; Phase 2: from acknowledgment to clear cognitive stance against the eating disorder; Phase 3: towards clear stance against the “patient” status; Phase 4: towards re-authoring life and regaining self-agency; Phase 5: towards recovery and maintenance. Results In a longitudinal study of patients with a severe and debilitating eating disorder treated with this approach. The drop-out rate was less than 10%. This was during the first two months of treatment for those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, and this was higher than in those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. At the end of treatment (15 months to 4 years later) 65% of those treated with anorexia nervosa and 81% of those treated with bulimia nervosa were either in a fully recovered state or in much improved. At the four-year follow-up, 68% of those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and 83% of those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized as either fully recovered or much improved. All patients who completed the program were gainfully employed. Conclusions The collaborative work, which is the heart of the described model increases the patient’s and family’s ownership of treatment and outcome and strengthen the therapeutic bond, thus enhances recovery.
    Journal of Eating Disorders. 01/2013; 1(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusive. Despite the fact that a huge body of research has carefully examined the possible risk factors associated with the eating disorders, they have failed not only to uncover the exact etiology of eating disorders, but also to understand the interaction between different causes of eating disorders. This failure may be due complexities of eating disorders, limitations of the studies or combination of two factors. In this review, some risk factors including biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural are discussed.
    Annals of Neurosciences. 03/2014; 20(4):157-161.


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