Constituents of Lepidium meyenii 'maca'.

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University MS 38677, USA.
Phytochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.35). 02/2002; 59(1):105-10. DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00395-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The tubers of Lepidium meyenii contain the benzylated derivative of 1,2-dihydro-N-hydroxypyridine, named macaridine, together with the benzylated alkamides (macamides), N-benzyl-5-oxo-6E,8E-octadecadienamide and N-benzylhexadecanamide, as well as the acyclic keto acid, 5-oxo-6E,8E-octadecadienoic acid. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, including 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HMQC, 1H-13C HMBC and 1H-1H NOESY experiments, as well as from 1H-15N NMR HMBC correlations for macaridine and N-benzylhexadecanamide.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Phytochemistry 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.030 · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pentane extract of the Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity in vitro (in crayfish neurons) and in vivo (in rats subjected to focal ischemic stroke). These results suggested a potential application of the lipophilic compounds from Maca as neuroprotectants. The current study was designed to examine the neuroprotectant activity in rat neuroblastoma cells and the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the mechanism of action of the Maca pentane extract. Rat neuroblastoma cells were pretreated with vehicle or O-2050 (a high affinity cannabinoid CB1 receptor silent antagonist) and exposed one hour later to either: Maca pentane extract or anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid). After 1 hour incubation, cells were exposed to oxidative damage with H2O2. Cell viability was determined 24 hours later by the trypan blue exclusion cell count method and the spectrophotometric dimethylthiazolylcarboxymethoxyphenyl-sulfophenyl-tetrazolium (MTS) method. The neuroprotectant activity of the pentane extract was confirmed. Compound O-2050 alone produced neurotoxic effects, and significantly (p < 0.05) antagonized the neuroprotectant activity of the pentane extract when used in combination. The pentane extract was tested in an in vitro model using human recombinant fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. The Maca pentane extract demonstrated a significant concentration-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity (p < 0.05) at concentrations between 0.1 to 30 μg/mL. These results suggest a potential application of Maca or its constituents as FAAH inhibitors. Maca lipophilic constituents may influence neurotransmission in the central nervous system and may act through the endocannabinoid system to protect neurons against excitotoxic damage.
    American Journal of Neuroprotecion and Neuroregeneration 06/2011; 3(1):87-92. DOI:10.1166/ajnn.2011.1035
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective:To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol.Materials and Methods:Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay.Results:At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group.Conclusions:Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women.
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 07/2014; 46(4):416-9. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.135955 · 0.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014