Specific but variable expression of h-caldesmon in leiomyosarcomas: An immunohistochemical reassessment of a novel myogenic marker

Department of Pathology and Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.01). 01/2002; 9(4):302-8. DOI: 10.1097/00129039-200112000-00003
Source: PubMed


h-Caldesmon is considered a novel specific marker for tumors with smooth muscle differentiation. To reassess its diagnostic use, the authors evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of h-caldesmon and other myogenic markers (calponin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, HHF35, and desmin) in 30 leiomyosarcomas (external soft tissues [15], retroperitoneum [8], uterus [5], other sites [2]), 26 myofibroblastic lesions, and 26 fibrohistiocytic tumors of varying biologic potential and histology. In contrast with previous data, h-caldesmon was expressed only in 11 (36%) of the 30 leiomyosarcomas analyzed, whereas they consistently expressed actins and frequently expressed calponin (86%) and desmin (76%). Leiomyosarcomas with the expression of h-caldesmon were well or moderately differentiated and primarily confined to the retroperitoneum or uterus. All but one leiomyosarcomas in the external soft tissues examined were negative for h-caldesmon, and the h-caldesmon-negative tumors showed moderately to poorly differentiated morphology. All myofibroblastic lesions examined were negative for h-caldesmon despite their constant expressions of at least one of the other markers. h-Caldesmon was not expressed in fibrohistiocytic tumors either, although focal positivity for the other markers was seen in subsets of the tumors. Thus, h-caldesmon can be regarded as a specific myogenic marker. However, one should be aware that the expression of h-caldesmon in leiomyosarcomas can be more variable according to their locations and/or extent of smooth muscle differentiation than considered previously.

2 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemistry is particularly important in the field of soft tissue tumours because of their variety and the frequent difficulty of diagnosis. The first part of this paper discusses useful or new antibodies, together with others that are no longer of use. The second part is devoted to the role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours: identification of some rare or atypical benign lesions, identification of non-mesenchymal malignant tumours, and classification of sarcomas. The respective roles of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology are underlined.
    Histopathology 08/2003; 43(1):1-16. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2559.2003.01639.x · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To obtain further information regarding the frequency and degree of positivity for smooth muscle markers in a large number of malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs), as an aid to accurate diagnosis. The immunohistochemical features of 100 MFHs were studied and the results were compared with those for 30 leiomyosarcomas. Eighteen cases of MFH with smooth muscle actin (SMA) positivity were examined ultrastructurally. Immunoreactivity for smooth muscle markers, such as desmin, SMA, muscle specific actin (MSA) and h-caldesmon (HCD), which is a specific marker for smooth muscle cells and their tumours, was found in 28, 30, 29, and 29 of 30 leiomyosarcomas. Immunoreactivity for desmin, SMA, MSA, and HCD was found in 17, 30, 14, and two of the MFHs. On electron microscopic examination, approximately half of the cases contained a varying proportion of myofibroblastic cells. The others had only fibroblastic or undifferentiated tumour cells. At least 30% of the cases were found to display features consistent with limited smooth muscle or myofibroblastic differentiation. A large subset of so called MFH in fact shows poorly differentiated smooth muscle or myofibroblastic features, and perhaps such tumours should be regarded as pleomorphic leiomyosarcomas and/or pleomorphic myofibroblastic sarcomas.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology 10/2003; 56(9):666-71. · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solitary myofibroma of adults is an uncommon neoplasm that typically arises in soft tissue and subcutaneous sites in the head and neck, but rarely within bone. When encountered in the jaws, the lesions exhibit clinical and radiographic features suggestive of an odontogenic tumor or cyst as well as several other neoplastic conditions. Tooth mobility, displacement of teeth, and dramatic jaw expansion may be observed. Analogous to other sites of involvement, gnathic myofibromas are biologically indolent and show little or no recurrence following excision. In rare instances, however, the ability to obtain adequate surgical margins by conservative measures may be limited; thus, issues of local control may supercede the importance of biologic potential. We present the radiologic and histopathologic findings in a case of central myofibroma presenting as a large lytic lesion of the mandible. Myofibroma involving the jaw bones represents a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and accurate diagnosis and management is predicated on careful correlation of radiographic and pathologic findings.
    Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 11/2004; 8(5):284-9. DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2004.07.005 · 1.12 Impact Factor
Show more