To examine whether typical modes of anger expression (ie., anger-in, anger-out) were related to cardiovascular, affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses to interpersonal conflict, 20 anger-in and 20 anger-out undergraduate men participated in 2 role plays, one in which they were instructed to exhibit their anger overtly and the other in which they inhibited their anger Results showed that anger-in individuals used significantly more repression self-statements than anger-out individuals across both role play interactions (p <.01). Anger-out persons showed exaggerated diastolic blood pressure response in contrast to anger-in participants, but only during the exhibited anger role play (p <.04). When the anger exhibition role play followed anger inhibition, diastolic bloodpressure responses were more intense (p <. 05), and heart rate recovery was significantly slower (p <.03) among anger-outparticipants in contrast to anger-in participants. These findings indicate that modes of anger expression (trait) and contextual demands of the interaction (state) interact in complex ways to influence biobehavioral reactions to anger provocation.
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"Dimsdale et al., 1986; Gentry et al., 1982; Dembroski et al., 1985), several other studies have shown associations between open anger expression (i.e., anger out) and blood pressure (e.g. Harburg et al., 1991; Siegman, 1994; Suchday and Larkin, 2001). Moreover, in one study 67 female undergraduates were divided into three groups: low, moderate, or high in Anger-in or Angerout (Abel et al., 1995). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that intense anger experience may increase risk for or exacerbate cardiovascular diseases has been under active theoretical and empirical interest for decades. Biopsychological models of disease suggest that persons displaying exaggerated physiological responses to acute emotional or stressful states are at a greater risk to develop cardiovascular disorders. The last two decades have witnessed active work to refine means by which anger expression can be assessed, and laboratory research has produced evidence suggesting that certain expression styles may predict enhanced physiological responses to acute stress. In this paper, we review methodological and definition issues related to the assessment of anger, and we summarize recent improvements on the assessment of anger expression. We also review recent studies addressing the association between anger and cardiovascular diseases, and we present potential neuroendocrine and behavioral mechanisms through which anger expression may increase risk for cardiovascular disease.
Journal of Behavioral Medicine 01/2007; 29(6):573-91. DOI:10.1007/s10865-006-9077-0 · 3.10 Impact Factor
"Two hundred and eighty-two male participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were recruited from undergraduate psychology classes at West Virginia University (details of study procedure and participants are reported in Suchday and Larkin, 2001). Forty participants classified as anger expressors (N = 20) and anger suppressors (N = 20) were selected on the basis of responses to the Anger Expression Inventory (Spielberger, 1988). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study describes the creation and validation of the Anger Cognitions Inventory (ACI) to assess the cognitive appraisals associated with resentful and reflective anger. The ACI was created based on a content analysis of self-reports of participants' thoughts and feelings following anger provocation in the laboratory. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on two separate college student samples (N = 267 and N = 276, respectively) revealed five subscales which could validly be grouped into resentful and reflective anger. Convergent and divergent validity data showed that resentful anger correlated positively with anger-out/trait anger and reflective anger correlated positively with anger-in/brooding. A second study showed positive correlations between rumination and delayed cardiovascular recovery following anger provocation. Limitations of both studies include restricted samples which limit generalizability of results and cardiovascular recovery data collected in Study II which does not include assessment of autonomic balance between vagal and sympathetic responsivity.
Journal of Behavioral Medicine 09/2004; 27(4):319-41. DOI:10.1023/B:JOBM.0000042408.80551.e1 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether cognitions that accompany the experience of anger are similar among people from the US
and India. Asian Indian participants were administered the Anger Cognitions Inventory, a self-report measure assessing cognitions
associated with resentful and reflective anger that was previously validated in a sample from the US. Results indicated that
there were five subscales in the Asian Indian sample; although there were some differences in the specific items that comprise
the five subscales, the overall categories described by the subscales are similar in both cultures. Cognitions defining resentful
anger were positively associated with poor physical health, hostility, and stress, whereas self-statements indicative of reflective
anger were not related to any of these variables. Cognitive self-statements may exacerbate the experience of anger and subjective
distress regardless of culture.
Cognitive Therapy and Research 01/2007; 31(4):559-572. DOI:10.1007/s10608-006-9039-4 · 1.70 Impact Factor