Effect of Food and Food Composition on Alcohol Elimination Rates in Healthy Men and Women

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202-5121, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.48). 01/2002; 41(12):1345-50. DOI: 10.1177/009127000104101210
Source: PubMed


Several studies have evaluated the effect of food on alcohol pharmacokinetics; however, most studies have used oral alcohol administration, which cannot separate the influence of food on absorption from its influence on alcohol elimination. Alcohol clamping uses intravenous alcohol and provides a direct measure of the alcohol elimination rate (AER). Two studies, using alcohol clamping at 50 mg %, were conducted to investigate the effect of food and food composition on AER (g/h) in healthymen and women. In the first study, 20 subjects underwent two clamping sessions, one after a 12-hour fast and another 1 hour after consuming a 530-calorie breakfast. In the second study, 8 subjects underwent four clamping sessions: one after a 12-hour fast and, in each of three "fed" sessions, 1 hour after a 550-calorie high-fat, high-protein, or high-carbohydrate breakfast. Comparison of AERs from the first study showed an average 25% increase following food compared to thatfollowingfasting. Men showed significantly higher AERs compared to women; however, the food effect was similar in both genders. In the second study, the AER showed a significant average 45% increase following the meal, regardless of composition, compared with that following fasting. These findings indicate that food intake results in increased alcohol elimination rates. The increase was similar for meals of different compositions, suggesting that the food effect is not due to specific interactions with meal constituents. Probable mechanisms for the increased alcohol elimination includefood-induced increases in hepatic blood flow and in the activity of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes.


Available from: Vijay A Ramchandani, Aug 22, 2014
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    • "A breathalyzer test was performed to ensure zero alcohol concentrations using the handheld breathalyzer Alcotest 7410 plus (Drager Safety Diagnostics Inc., Irving, TX), and a urine beta-hCG test was performed on the female subjects to ensure that they were not pregnant at the start of each study session. Participants received a light breakfast (~300 Kcal) approximately 1 hour prior to the infusion in an attempt to standardize the effects of food on alcohol pharmacokinetics during the study (Ramchandani et al., 2001). An indwelling IV catheter was inserted into the antecubital vein of the nondominant arm using sterile technique; this catheter was used for alcohol or placebo infusion and blood sampling. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac reactivity measures, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV), following acute intravenous (IV) alcohol administration and their association with subjective responses in social drinkers. Methods: Twenty-four subjects (11 females) received IV alcohol infusions to attain and clamp the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) at 50 mg% or placebo in separate sessions. Serial 5-minute cardiac recordings at baseline and during the infusion were analyzed to obtain frequency and time domain cardiac measures. Self-reported subjective perceptions were also obtained at the same time points. Results: HR showed significant decreases from baseline, while the HRV measure pNN50 showed steady increases during the ascending phase of alcohol infusion. HR was inversely correlated with pNN50 across time and treatment. There was a significant association of HR with subjective feelings of high, intoxication, feeling drug effects, and liking drug effects across time during the ascending phase. Conclusions: Acute IV alcohol resulted in decreases in HR and increases in HRV consistent with autonomic parasympathetic activation. The association of these changes with subjective responses suggests that cardiac reactivity may serve as a physiological marker of subjective alcohol effects. This study broadens the understanding of acute cardiovascular effects of alcohol and clinically significant cardiac conditions such as arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy associated with chronic alcohol drinking.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/2014; 38(5). DOI:10.1111/acer.12377 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, solid meals delay gastric emptying more so than liquid meals, and the rate of absorption of EtOH consumed with a solid meal is likewise slower than when consumed with a liquid meal, probably as a function of the rate of gastric emptying (Horowitz et al., 1989). Other studies indicate that food increases the rate of elimination of EtOH (Ramchandani et al., 2001b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Both the amount and the rate of absorption of ethanol (EtOH) from alcoholic beverages are key determinants of the peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and exposure of organs other than gut and liver. Previous studies suggest EtOH is absorbed more rapidly in the fasting than in the postprandial state. The concentration of EtOH and the type of beverage may determine gastric emptying/absorption of EtOH.Methods The pharmacokinetics of EtOH were measured in 15 healthy men after consumption of 0.5 g of EtOH/kg body weight. During this 3-session crossover study, subjects consumed in separate sessions, beer (5.1% v/v), white wine (12.5% v/v), or vodka/tonic (20% v/v) over 20 minutes following an overnight fast. BAC was measured by gas chromatography at multiple points after consumption.ResultsPeak BAC (Cmax) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) after vodka/tonic (77.4 ± 17.0 mg/dl) than after wine (61.7 ± 10.8 mg/dl) or beer (50.3 ± 9.8 mg/dl) and was significantly higher (p < 0.001) after wine than beer. The time to Cmax occurred significantly earlier (p < 0.01) after vodka/tonic (36 ± 10 minutes) compared to wine (54 ± 14 minutes) or beer (62 ± 23 minutes). Six subjects exceeded a Cmax of 80 mg/dl after vodka/tonic, but none exceeded this limit after beer or wine. The area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) was significantly greater after drinking vodka/tonic (p < 0.001) than after wine or beer. Comparison of AUCs indicated the relative bioavailability of EtOH was lower after drinking beer.Conclusions Findings indicate that BAC is higher after drinking vodka/tonic than beer or wine after fasting. A binge pattern is significantly more likely to result in BAC above 80 mg/dl after drinking vodka/tonic than beer or wine. Men drinking on an empty stomach should know BAC will vary depending on beverage type and the rate and amount of EtOH.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/2014; 38(5). DOI:10.1111/acer.12355 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    • "However, alcohol absorption and elimination vary considerably amongst individuals, and the pharmacokinetics of alcohol is subject to influences from a variety of factors. These include individual characteristics such as age (Lucey et al., 1999), gender (Baraona et al., 2001), genetics (Whitfield, 1994), and body composition (Marshall et al., 1983) as well as alcohol administration variables such as alcohol dose (O'Neill et al., 1983), concentration (Roberts and Robinson, 2007), type of alcoholic beverage (Roine et al., 1993), the consumption and composition of meals (Ramchandani et al., 2001b), the timing of alcohol consumption (O'Neill et al., 1983) and individual patterns of alcohol exposure (Whitfield and Martin, 1994). The individual characteristics described are considered to influence the proportion of water in the body and have been thought to make "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of exercise-induced dehydration on alcohol pharmacokinetics, subjective ratings of impairment, and risk-taking behaviours. Twelve male volunteers participated in 3 experimental trials completed in a randomised cross over design separated by at least 7 days. In one trial, participants exercised to cause dehydration of ~2.5% body weight loss. For the other trials, participants were required to be in a rested and euhydrated state. A set volume of alcohol was then consumed in each trial and participants were monitored over a 4h period. Blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol samples were collected throughout and analysed to calculate pharmacokinetic variables associated with the blood alcohol curve. Total urine production, estimates of BrAC, and subjective ratings of intoxication and impairment were also recorded throughout each trial. No difference was found in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol between any of the trial conditions. BrACs were higher than BACs for 2h following alcohol consumption, but lower at measures taken 3 and 4 h post ingestion. Participants' ratings of confusion and intoxication were significantly lower, and they were more willing to drive in the dehydration trial compared with one of the euhydration trials. These findings suggest that dehydration or other physiological changes associated with exercise may have an ability to influence the subjective effects of alcohol and increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviours such as drink-driving. However, further research is required to examine the effects of alcohol under conditions of exercise-induced fluid loss in order to clarify these findings.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 03/2012; 101(4):609-16. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.02.016 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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