This study evaluated the potential for an inspiratory impedance threshold valve (ITV) to improve 24-hour survival and neurological function in a pig model of cardiac arrest.
Using a randomized, prospective, and blinded design, we compared the effects of a sham versus active ITV on 24-hour survival and neurological function. After 6 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF), followed by 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with either a sham or an active valve, anesthetized pigs received 3 sequential 200-J shocks. If VF persisted, they received epinephrine (0.045 mg/kg), 90 seconds of CPR, and 3 more 200-J shocks. A total of 11 of 20 pigs (55%) in the sham versus 17 of 20 (85%) in the active valve group survived for 24 hours (P<0.05). Neurological scores were significantly higher with the active valve; the cerebral performance score (1=normal, 5=brain death) was 2.2+/-0.2 with the sham ITV versus 1.4+/-0.2 with the active valve (P<0.05). A total of 1 of 11 in the sham versus 12 of 17 in the active valve group had completely normal neurological function (P<0.05). Peak end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) values were significantly higher with the active valve (20.4+/-1.0) than the sham (16.8+/-1.5) (P<0.05). PETCO2 >18 mm Hg correlated with increased survival (P<0.05).
Use of a functional ITV during standard CPR significantly improved 24-hour survival rates and neurological recovery. PETCO2 and systolic blood pressure were also significantly higher in the active valve group. These data support further evaluation of ITV during standard CPR.
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"An impedance threshold device (ITD) was developed recently to enhance circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)            . This device impedes inspiratory gas exchange during the decompression (or chest wall recoil) phase of CPR, thereby generating a greater vacuum in ଝ A Spanish translated version of the Abstract of this article appears as Appendix at 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2005.05.009. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An impedance threshold device (ITD) has been developed for the treatment of cardiac arrest to augment circulation to the heart and brain during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The ITD has ventilation timing lights that flash at 12 min(-1) to discourage excessive ventilation rates.
Implementation of the ITD during conventional manual CPR in a large emergency medical services (EMS) system (Staffordshire, UK) is safe, feasible and will improve short-term survival.
ITD use was implemented by the Staffordshire Ambulance Trust, which treats 1600 cardiac arrests per year with 90 advanced life support (ALS) units and an average response time of 6.3 min. During training, rescuers learned to use the ventilation timing lights to discourage hyperventilation. Rescuers applied the device after tracheal intubation. They were trained to allow the chest to recoil fully after each compression. Prospective ITD use in adults receiving conventional manual CPR for non-traumatic cardiac arrest was compared to matched historical controls receiving conventional manual CPR without inspiratory impedance. All received similar ALS care. The primary endpoint was admission to the emergency department (ED) alive following cardiac arrest. Chi-square, Fisher's exact and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used for statistical analyses.
Survival (alive upon ED admission) in all patients receiving an ITD (61/181 [34%]) improved by 50% compared to historical controls (180/808 [22%]) (P<0.01). Survival in patients presenting in asystole tripled in the group receiving an ITD (26/76 [34%]) compared with historical controls (39/351 [11%]) (P=0.001). There were no significant adverse events.
The ITD was used safely and effectively in a large, diverse EMS system and markedly improved short-term survival for adult patients in non-traumatic cardiac arrest.
"E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org. is thought to enhance filling of the pump mechanism with blood and, in turn, to improve hemodynamics during CPR   . Studies in anesthetized pigs have demonstrated greater venous return and greater perfusion pressures during Standard CPR when an ITV is attached to the airway  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An impedance threshold valve (ITV) is a new airway adjunct for resuscitation that permits generation of a small vacuum in the chest during the recoil phase of chest compression.
To explore in detail the expected magnitude and the hemodynamic mechanisms of circulatory augmentation by an ITV in Standard CPR.
A 14-compartment mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system--upgraded to include applied chest compression force, elastic recoil of the chest wall, anatomic details of the heart and lungs, and the biomechanics of mediastinal compression--is exercised to explore the conditions required for circulatory augmentation by an ITV during various modes of CPR.
The ITV augments systemic perfusion pressure by about 5 mmHg compared to any particular baseline perfusion pressure without the ITV. When baseline perfusion is low, owing to either diminished chest compression force, the existence of a thoracic pump mechanism of blood flow, or the presence of an effective compression threshold, then the relative improvement produced by an ITV is significant. With an ITV the heart expands into soft pericardiac tissue, which makes the heart easier to compress.
An ITV can augment perfusion during CPR. The observed effectiveness of ITVs in the laboratory and in the clinic suggests a thoracic pump mechanism for Standard CPR, and perhaps also an effective compression threshold that must be exceeded to generate blood flow by external chest compression.
"All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2004.12.027 compression–decompression (ACD) CPR increases blood flow to the heart and brain     and increases 24-h survival and improves neurological recovery . Studies have also shown the benefit of an ITD on hemodynamics and shortand longer-term outcomes in humans receiving ACD CPR   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In animals in cardiac arrest, an inspiratory impedance threshold device (ITD) has been shown to improve hemodynamics and neurologically intact survival. The objective of this study was to determine whether an ITD would improve blood pressure (BP) in patients receiving CPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
This prospective, randomized, double-blind, intention-to-treat study was conducted in the Milwaukee, WI, emergency medical services (EMS) system. EMS personnel used an active (functional) or sham (non-functional) ITD on a tracheal tube on adults in cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology. Care between groups was similar except for ITD type. Low dose epinephrine (1mg) was used per American Heart Association Guidelines. Femoral arterial BP (mmHg) was measured invasively during CPR.
Mean+/-S.D. time from ITD placement to first invasive BP recording was approximately 14 min. Twelve patients were treated with a sham ITD versus 10 patients with an active ITD. Systolic BPs (mean+/-S.D.) [number of patients treated at given time point] at T = 0 (time of first arterial BP measurement), and T=2, 5 and 7 min were 85+/-29 , 85+/-23 , 85+/-16  and 69+/-22  in the group receiving an active ITD compared with 43+/-15 , 47+/-16 , 47+/-20 , and 52+/-23  in subjects treated with a sham ITD, respectively (p < 0.01 for all times). Diastolic BPs at T = 0, 2, 5 and 7 min were 20+/-12, 21+/-13, 23+/-15 and 25+/-14 in the group receiving an active ITD compared with 15+/-9, 17+/-8, 17+/-9 and 19+/-8 in subjects treated with a sham ITD, respectively (p = NS for all times). No significant adverse device events were reported.
Use of the active ITD was found to increase systolic pressures safely and significantly in patients in cardiac arrest compared with sham controls.