Conformational regulation of SNARE assembly and disassembly in vivo
ABSTRACT SNAP receptor (SNARE) proteins function in intracellular trafficking by forming complexes that bridge vesicle and target membranes prior to fusion. Biochemical studies indicate that the entry of certain SNARE proteins into complexes is inhibited by intramolecular interactions that generate a closed conformation. For example, an essential N-terminal regulatory domain of the yeast plasma membrane SNARE Sso1p sequesters the C-terminal SNARE motif and prevents it from binding to its assembly partners Sec9p and Sncp. Here, we introduce mutations into Sso1p that cause it to remain constitutively open. These open mutants can functionally substitute for wild-type Sso1p protein in vivo, demonstrating that inhibition of SNARE assembly is not the essential function of the N-terminal regulatory domain. Furthermore, the open mutants suppress sec9--4, a mutation that causes a severe defect in SNARE assembly. Elevated levels of SNARE complexes are observed in cells expressing the open mutants. In the presence of sufficient Sec9p, these complexes accumulate to levels that cause severe growth defects. Similarly, overexpression of the open mutants in yeast carrying mutations in the SNARE disassembly machinery impairs growth. Our findings indicate that elevated levels of SNARE complexes can be toxic and that these levels are normally controlled by the SNARE disassembly machinery, by the limited availability of Sec9p, and by the closed conformation of Sso1p.
- SourceAvailable from: Dimitrios Kioumourtzoglou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion in all eukaryotic cells is regulated by the formation of specific SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complexes. The molecular mechanisms that control this process are conserved through evolution and require several protein families, including Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the mammalian SNARE protein syntaxin 16 (Sx16, also known as Syn16) is a functional homologue of the yeast SNARE Tlg2p, in that its expression fully complements the mutant phenotypes of tlg2Delta mutant yeast. We have used this functional homology to demonstrate that, as observed for Tlg2p, the function of Sx16 is regulated by the SM protein Vps45p. Furthermore, in vitro SNARE-complex assembly studies demonstrate that the N-terminal domain of Tlg2p is inhibitory to the formation of SNARE complexes, and that this inhibition can be lifted by the addition of purified Vps45p. By combining these cell-biological and biochemical analyses, we propose an evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanism for Vps45p function. Our data support a model in which the SM protein is required to facilitate a switch of Tlg2p and Sx16 from a closed to an open conformation, thus allowing SNARE-complex assembly and membrane fusion to proceed.Journal of Cell Science 08/2009; 122(Pt 13):2292-9. DOI:10.1242/jcs.046441 · 5.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The exocyst is an essential protein complex required for targeting and fusion of secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane. To study the function of the exocyst complex, we performed a structure-based mutational analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst subunit Sec6p. Two "patches" of highly conserved residues are present on the surface of Sec6p; mutation of either patch does not compromise protein stability. Nevertheless, replacement of SEC6 with the patch mutants results in severe temperature-sensitive growth and secretion defects. At nonpermissive conditions, although trafficking of secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane is unimpaired, none of the exocyst subunits are polarized. This is consistent with data from other exocyst temperature-sensitive mutants, which disrupt the integrity of the complex. Surprisingly, however, these patch mutations result in mislocalized exocyst complexes that remain intact. Our results indicate that assembly and polarization of the exocyst are functionally separable events, and that Sec6p is required to anchor exocyst complexes at sites of secretion.Molecular biology of the cell 01/2009; 20(3):973-82. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E08-09-0968 · 5.98 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SNAP receptor (SNARE) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins are required for all intracellular membrane fusion events. SNAREs are widely believed to drive the fusion process, but the function of SM proteins remains unclear. To shed light on this, we screened for dominant-negative mutants of yeast Sec1 by random mutagenesis of a GAL1-regulated SEC1 plasmid. Mutants were identified on the basis of galactose-inducible growth arrest and inhibition of invertase secretion. This effect of dominant-negative sec1 was suppressed by overexpression of the vesicle (v)-SNAREs, Snc1 and Snc2, but not the target (t)-SNAREs, Sec9 and Sso2. The mutations isolated in Sec1 clustered in a hotspot within domain 3a, with F361 mutated in four different mutants. To test if this region was generally involved in SM protein function, the F361-equivalent residue in mammalian Munc18-1 (Y337) was mutated. Overexpression of the Munc18-1 Y337L mutant in bovine chromaffin cells inhibited the release kinetics of individual exocytosis events. The Y337L mutation impaired binding of Munc18-1 to the neuronal SNARE complex, but did not affect its binary interaction with syntaxin1a. Taken together, these data suggest that domain 3a of SM proteins has a functionally important role in membrane fusion. Furthermore, this approach of screening for dominant-negative mutants in yeast may be useful for other conserved proteins, to identify functionally important domains in their mammalian homologs.Genetics 09/2008; 180(1):165-78. DOI:10.1534/genetics.108.090423 · 4.87 Impact Factor