Genetic analysis of HIV type 2 from Ghana and Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.
ABSTRACT The phylogenetic variability of part of the long terminal repeat (LTR) region of HIV-2 strains isolated in 1995 from five individuals residing in Bissau, the capital city of Guinea-Bissau, and collected from seven persons from Kumasi, Ghana in 1996-1997, was analyzed. All Guinean samples and all but one Ghanaian sample clustered with HIV-2 subtype A. One Ghanaian sample (14%) was classified as HIV-2 subtype B. This study adds to previous reports on HIV-2 subtype distribution in West Africa indicating local prevalence of HIV-2 subtype B in Ivory Coast and neighboring Ghana.
Article: Epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 infection in Africa.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are things yet to be clarified about African HIV-2 infection, compared to HIV-1 infection. However, the epidemiological characteristics have gradually been elucidated through various studies. HIV-2 infection is believed to have existed in the 1960s in Africa and is presently epidemic in West Africa. The HIV-2 seropositive rate for the general population is higher in urban regions than in rural areas. The peak age of persons infected with the HIV-2 tends to be higher than that of persons infected with the HIV-1, but no sex difference was recognized between the HIV-2 and HIV-1 seropositive rates. Sexual contact, mother-to-child transmission and blood transfusion have been confirmed as HIV-2 transmission modes. Prostitutes and patients with other STD are recognized as being high-risk groups for the HIV-2 infection. Patients who are infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2 have also been identified, but it is suggested that the pathogenicity of HIV-2 is lower than that of HIV-1.International Journal of STD & AIDS 6(2):75-80. · 1.09 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic subtypes of HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 strains in commercial sex workers from Bamako, Mali.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In Africa the highest HIV infection rate has been reported among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) who are at increasing risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection. In October 1995, 176 CSWs were studied in Bamako, the capital city of Mali. The ages of the CSWs ranged from 15 to 50 years old (mean, 28.8 years). Only 20.45% of the 176 CSWs were Malian; the majority were from Nigeria (32.9%) and Ghana (31.8%), and the remaining were from other African countries. Forty-one percent were active for less than 1 year as a commercial sex worker, and the length of prostitution for the remaining women ranged from 1 to 15 years (mean, 2.76). A total of 81 (46.02%) of the 176 CSWs were positive for HIV antibodies; 63 (35.8%) were HIV-1 positive, (3.9%) were HIV-2 positive, 11 (6.2%) had antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2, and none of them had antibodies to group O viruses. For all HIV antibody-positive samples, PBMCs were separated and genetic subtypes of HIV-1 were determined using the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), with ED5-ED12 as outer and ES7-ES8 as inner primers. Among the 66 HIV-1 strains characterized, 53 (80.3%) were subtype A, 2 (3.1%) belonged to subtype C, 1 (1.5%) belonged to subtype D, and 10 (15.1%) were identified as subtype G. Among the 10 subtype G strains, 8 were obtained from women who were very recent CSWs, with an activity of 1 year or less, assuming that there is a high probability that these infections occurred recently. Genetic subtypes of five HIV-2 viruses were determined by sequencing of the env and/or gag genes followed by phylogenetic analysis, and all of them belonged to subtype A. Comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 seroprevalence data from our study with previous data from Mali shows a significant rise in HIV-1 prevalence and a significant decrease in HIV-2 prevalence and confirms similar trends observed in neighboring countries. We have found four different genetic subtypes of HIV-1; however, subtype A is predominant and accounts for 80% of the cases and 15% of the HIV-1 infections were subtype G. It is important to continue the surveillance of subtypes on a systematic basis in order to see to what extent the proportions of the different subtypes will change over time.AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 02/1998; 14(1):51-8. · 2.25 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) mixed infections in India reveals a recent spread of HIV-1 and HIV-2 from a single ancestor for each of these viruses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA sequences encoding the surface envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) were amplified by PCR from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with serologically defined HIV-1/HIV-2 mixed infections from Bombay, India. HIV-1-specific PCR products were obtained in seven of seven randomly chosen doubly reactive cases, while HIV-2-specific sequences were detected in five of seven cases (71%). DNA sequence analysis showed that the HIV-1 gp120 coding sequences were closely related to each other (nucleotide sequence divergence of between 3.1 and 6.8%). Phylogenetic tree analysis placed the Indian strains within the C subtype of HIV-1, being most similar to sequences previously found in East and South Africa. The HIV-2 sequences were also closely related to each other, with an overall sequence divergence of between 5.6 and 10.5%. The low level of nucleotide divergence among Indian HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences suggests a fairly recent introduction of each virus into this population from a single point of entry in each case. The HIV-2 sequences reported here represent the first analysis of Asian HIV-2 strains and confirm the serological pattern previously detected in India. These data show that a substantial spread of HIV-2, together with HIV-1, has appeared outside Africa in a population hitherto unexposed to HIV. These findings imply that further spread of HIV-2 worldwide is to be expected and have important implications for future vaccine and therapy development.Journal of Virology 05/1994; 68(4):2161-8. · 5.40 Impact Factor
AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES
Volume 17, Number 17, 2001, pp. 1661–1663
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Genetic Analysis of HIV Type 2 from Ghana and
Guinea-Bissau, West Africa
KOICHI ISHIKAWA,1,2WOUTER JANSSENS,3JACOB S. BANOR,2TEIICHIRO SHINNO,1
JOÃO PIEDADE,4TETSUTARO SATA,1WILLIAM K. AMPOFO,2JAMES A.M. BRANDFUL,2
YOSHIO KOYANAGI,5NAOKI YAMAMOTO,5WANDA F. CANAS-FERREIRA,4
YAW ADU-SARKODIE,6and TAKESHI KURATA1
The phylogenetic variability of part of the long terminal repeat (LTR) region of HIV-2 strains isolated in 1995
from five individuals residing in Bissau, the capital city of Guinea-Bissau, and collected from seven persons
from Kumasi, Ghana in 1996–1997, was analyzed. All Guinean samples and all but one Ghanaian sample clus-
tered with HIV-2 subtype A. One Ghanaian sample (14%) was classified as HIV-2 subtype B. This study adds
to previous reports on HIV-2 subtype distribution in West Africa indicating local prevalence of HIV-2 sub-
type B in Ivory Coast and neighboring Ghana.
Senegal, The Gambia, Cape Verde Islands, Mali)1,2and in In-
dia.3In addition, HIV-2 infection has been documented mainly
in African immigrants.4In geographic regions where both HIV-
1 and HIV-2 are prevalent, their spread has been unequal. Stud-
ies have shown that HIV-2 is perinatally and sexually less trans-
missible than HIV-1.5,6Although HIV-2 AIDS appears to be
similar to HIV-1-induced AIDS, the rate of disease progression
in HIV-2-infected individuals is much slower than in those with
HIV-1.6,7The ratio of HIV-1 versus HIV-2 infections is rapidly
increasing over time. In Ghana, Hishida et al. reported that HIV
seroprevalence of HIV/AIDS patient or suspected cases in
1990–1992 for HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infection were 65, 21,
and 14%, respectively.8According to the data of 1999 HIV sen-
tinel surveillance in Ghana, HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infection
rates were 92.8, 2.8, and 4.4%, respectively.9Seven HIV-2 ge-
netic subtypes, A to G, have been reported to date.10–12HIV-2
subtype A viruses have been documented in diverse locations
UMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 2 (HIV-2) is com-
mon in West Africa (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau,
across western Africa1,2as well as in Europe,4India,3and South
Korea.13Subtype B exhibits a more restricted geographical dis-
tribution and has been reported mainly in Ivory Coast14and
Ghana,15with a few cases documented in Europe16and the Mid-
dle East.17Subtypes C, D, E, F, and G are each represented by
single sequences that were obtained from HIV-2-seropositive
individuals living in rural areas of Liberia (subtypes C and D),
Sierra Leone (subtypes E and F), or Ivory Coast (subtype
The present study focuses on HIV-2 subtype distribution
among HIV-2-seropositive individuals in Guinea-Bissau (n 5
5) and Ghana (n 5 7). Ninety-four Guinean individuals attend-
ing an outpatient clinic at the Tropical Medicine Center of Bis-
sau, the capital city of Guinea-Bissau, in 1995 were screened
for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies by enzyme-linked im-
munosorbent assay (ELISA) (Innotest HIV-1/HIV-2 Ab sp;
Innogenetics, Zwijnaarde, Belgium). Reactive specimens were
subsequently confirmed by Western blot analysis (New Lav
Blot 1–2; Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Marnes-la-Coquette,
1National Institute of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Research Center, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.
2Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Ghana University, Accra, Ghana.
3Institute of Tropical Medicine, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium.
4Unidade de Virologia, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (UNL), Lisbon P-1349-008, Portugal.
5Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519, Japan.
6School of Medical Sciences, Kumasi, Ghana.
France). Twenty-one of 94 (22.3%) Guinean individuals tested
positive for HIV-2. Eighteen of 21 Guinean samples were con-
firmed HIV-2 positive by nested polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) using long terminal repeat (LTR) and/or env primers
(primers L100/L200 and L101/L201 for LTR, and primers
SE24/SE25bis and SE28/SE27bis for env) as described previ-
Five Guinean HIV-2-positive samples and seven samples
isolated from HIV-2-positive individuals from Ghana (Kumasi)
in 1996–1997 were used for subtyping purposes. Genomic DNA
was extracted from primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells
(PBMCs) of HIV-2-seropositive individuals. A 324-base pair
fragment encoding part of the LTR region (nucleotides 60 to
383 according to HIV-2 ROD; accession number X05291) was
PCR amplified as described previously.18PCR products were
purified with a QIAquick gel extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia,
CA). The recovered PCR products were subjected to direct se-
quencing in both directions, using an ABI PRISM dye termi-
nator cycle sequencing Ready Reaction kit (Applied Biosys-
tems, Foster City, CA) and an automatic sequencer (ABI model
373A: Applied Biosystems). The newly determined HIV-2 LTR
sequences were aligned with 15 previously documented se-
quences of HIV-2 isolates representing HIV-2 subtypes A, B,
and G, for which LTR sequence information is currently avail-
able. Distance calculation, tree construction, and bootstrap anal-
ysis were realized with the software package TREECON, as
Phylogenetically, all Guinean samples and six (86%) Ghana-
ian samples are classified as HIV-2 subtype A; one Ghanaian
sample (14%; NJ205) belongs to HIV-2 subtype B. Within sub-
type A, four Ghanaian samples (NJ42, NJ79, NJ206, and
NJ207) strongly clustered with HIV-2 ROD, previously isolated
from a person of the Cape Verde Islands (Fig. 1). Our results
indicate that at least two different subtypes of HIV-2, subtype
A and subtype B, cocirculated in Kumasi, Ghana between 1990
and 1997. So far only HIV-2 subtype A has been found in
Guinea-Bissau.20In Ghana, cocirculation of HIV-2 subtypes A
and B has already given rise to HIV-2 A/B recombinants.15
This study adds to the previous reports on HIV-2 subtype
distribution in Guinea-Bissau and Ghana. Regarding HIV-2
subtype distribution, so far subtype B has mainly been identi-
fied in Ivory Coast, where the majority of HIV-2 infections are
due to subtype B (71%, 20 of 28),14and to less extent in Ghana.
The reason for this local prevalence of HIV-2 subtype B is un-
clear. There are currently no studies indicating differences in
pathogenesis and transmissibility for HIV-2 subtypes. How-
ever, data on molecular epidemiology of HIV-2 subtypes re-
main scarce, and on the basis of our current knowledge it is
ISHIKAWA ET AL.
Sequences determined in this study are represented in italic. A total of 1000 bootstrap samples were analyzed. Bootstrap values
are given in percentages at the internodes if they exceed the 70% level. The distance between two sequences is obtained by sum-
ming the lengths of the connecting branches by using the scale at the top. The tree is rooted arbitrarily. Strain names of samples
from Guinea-Bissau and Ghana identified in this study are preceded by country codes GW and GH, respectively.
Phylogenetic tree based on 346 unambiguously aligned positions of 28 HIV-2 sequences encoding part of the LTR.
speculative to address evolutionary advantage to either subtype.
As the earliest samples documented for HIV-2 subtype distri-
bution in Ivory Coast were of both subtype A and B, sharing a
similar range of diversity, it seems plausible to believe that the
relative success of subtype A in most West African countries
is due to a founder effect. Further studies of HIV-2 isolates may
reveal the differences in biological properties between HIV-2
subtypes A and B.
We acknowledge the staff of the Virology Unit, Noguchi
Memorial Institute for Medical Research. This work was par-
tially supported by the Japanese Human Science Foundation
(Tokyo, Japan) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency
The HIV-2 LTR nucleotide sequence data were deposited in
the EMBL, GenBank, and DDBJ nucleotide sequence databases
under the following accession numbers: AY039114–
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1-23-1 Toyama Shinjyuku, Tokyo, Japan
HIV-2 SUBTYPES IN GHANA AND GUINEA-BISSAU