c-myc Suppression in Burkitt's lymphoma cells.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to elucidate how DNA tetraplex (also referred to as G-quadruplex)-forming oligonucleotides mediate suppression of the human c-myc gene at the level of transcription initiation. A 22-base-long oligonucleotide, which is rich in guanines and folds into an intrastrand DNA tetraplex under physiological conditions, was administered to a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line overexpressing a (8:14) translocated c-myc allele. Administration of the oligonucleotide at nanomolar concentrations to the surrounding medium resulted in efficient cellular uptake, and was accompanied by a substantial concentration- and conformation-dependent decrease in growth rate. We discuss how c-myc transcription is initiated at the molecular level and speculate that the oligonucleotide exerts a dual effect on c-myc expression in vivo.
Article: Disabling c-Myc in childhood medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor cells by the potent G-quadruplex interactive agent S2T1-6OTD.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated here the effects of S2T1-6OTD, a novel telomestatin derivative that is synthesized to target G-quadruplex-forming DNA sequences, on a representative panel of human medulloblastoma (MB) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid (AT/RT) childhood brain cancer cell lines. S2T1-6OTD proved to be a potent c-Myc inhibitor through its high-affinity physical interaction with the G-quadruplex structure in the c-Myc promoter. Treatment with S2T1-6OTD reduced the mRNA and protein expressions of c-Myc and hTERT, which is transcriptionally regulated by c-Myc, and decreased the activities of both genes. In remarkable contrast to control cells, short-term (72-hour) treatment with S2T1-6OTD resulted in a dose- and time-dependent antiproliferative effect in all MB and AT/RT brain tumor cell lines tested (IC(50), 0.25-0.39 micromol/L). Under conditions where inhibition of both proliferation and c-Myc activity was observed, S2T1-6OTD treatment decreased the protein expression of the cell cycle activator cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and induced cell cycle arrest. Long-term treatment (5 weeks) with nontoxic concentrations of S2T1-6OTD resulted in a time-dependent (mainly c-Myc-dependent) telomere shortening. This was accompanied by cell growth arrest starting on day 28 followed by cell senescence and induction of apoptosis on day 35 in all of the five cell lines investigated. On in vivo animal testing, S2T1-6OTD may well represent a novel therapeutic strategy for childhood brain tumors.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 01/2010; 9(1):167-79. · 5.23 Impact Factor
Article: Selective targeting of G-quadruplex using furan-based cyclic homooligopeptides: effect on c-MYC expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Quadruplex-specific molecules can serve as suitable drugs in cancer therapy. We have synthesized a pair of furan-based cyclic homooligopeptides, ligand 1 and ligand 2, to specifically target G-quadruplexes. We have shown by CD spectroscopy and UV melting that these ligands can effectively induce G-quadruplex structures in the G-rich 22-mer c-MYC DNA sequence and further stabilize the structure. Equilibrium binding constants measured by isothermal titration calorimeter methods indicate a high affinity of the ligands for the quadruplex structures (K ∼ 10(7) M(-1)) and no affinity for the duplex DNA, demonstrating that these ligands are selective for G-quadruplex structures. Surface plasmon resonance was also used to compute the binding while fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay was additionally used to confirm the selectivity. Moreover, using real time PCR we observed up to 90% downregulation of c-MYC transcripts after 24 h of ligand treatment in HeLa cells. Using a luciferase assay we show the downregulation of the protein levels. Fluorescent-assisted cell sorter-based cell cycle analysis showed a prominent arrest of cells in the sub-G1 stage upon treatment of ligands that leads toward apoptosis. Altogether, these experiments support the hypothesis that the present molecules are effective in specifically binding and stabilizing quadruplexes and provide a suitable scaffold to develop into a quadruplex-targeting therapeutic agent.Biochemistry 09/2010; 49(38):8388-97. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: Stacking of G-quadruplexes: NMR structure of a G-rich oligonucleotide with potential anti-HIV and anticancer activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: G-rich oligonucleotides T30695 (or T30923), with the sequence of (GGGT)(4), and T40214, with the sequence of (GGGC)(4), have been reported to exhibit anti-HIV and anticancer activity. Here we report on the structure of a dimeric G-quadruplex adopted by a derivative of these sequences in K(+) solution. It comprises two identical propeller-type parallel-stranded G-quadruplex subunits each containing three G-tetrad layers that are stacked via the 5'-5' interface. We demonstrated control over the stacking of the two monomeric subunits by sequence modifications. Our analysis of possible structures at the stacking interface provides a general principle for stacking of G-quadruplexes, which could have implications for the assembly and recognition of higher-order G-quadruplex structures.Nucleic Acids Research 08/2011; 39(21):9448-57. · 8.03 Impact Factor