Differential effects of garlic oil and its three major organosulfur components on the hepatic detoxification system in rats.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the modulatory effect of garlic oil and its three organosulfur compounds, diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), on rat hepatic detoxification enzyme activity, and protein and mRNA expression. Rats were orally administered garlic oil (80 or 200 mg/kg bw), DAS (20 or 80 mg/kg bw), DADS (80 mg/kg bw), or DATS (70 mg/kg bw) three times a week for 6 weeks. Control rats received corn oil. According to the results, garlic oil and DAS in dosages of 200 and 80 mg/kg bw, respectively, significantly increased pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity as compared with the that of the control rats (P < 0.05). In contrast, N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase activity in rats that received DADS and DATS was significantly lower than that in the control rats (P < 0.05). Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and erythromycin demethylase activities were not influenced by garlic oil, DAS, DADS, or DATS. To the phase II enzyme, garlic oil, DADS, and DATS significantly increased the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity toward ethacrynic aicd (P < 0.05). Immunoblot assay showed that the protein contents of cytochrome P450 1A1, 2B1, and 3A1 were increased by garlic oil and each of three allyl sulfides, and the change among the allyl sulfides was in the order of DAS > DADS > DATS. The placental form of GST (PGST) level was also increased by garlic oil and the three allyl sulfides, but the increase among the allyl sulfides was DATS congruent with DADS > DAS. P450 2E1, however, was suppressed by each garlic component. Northern blot results indicated that the changes in P450 1A1, 2B1, 3A1, and PGST mRNA levels by garlic components were similar to those noted in the protein levels. These results indicate that the modulatory effect of garlic oil on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes can be attributed to its three major allyl sulfide components DAS, DADS, and DATS. These three allyl sulfides vary in modulatory activity, and this variation is related to the number of sulfur atoms in the molecule.
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ABSTRACT: The health benefits of garlic have been proven by epidemiological and experimental studies. Diallyl disulphide (DADS), the major organosulfur compound found in garlic oil, is known to lower the incidence of breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reported here demonstrate that DADS induces apoptosis in the MCF-7 breast-cancer cell line through interfering with cell-cycle growth phases in a way that increases the sub-G(0) population and substantially halts DNA synthesis. DADS also induces phosphatidylserine translocation from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and activates caspase-3. Further studies revealed that DADS modulates the cellular levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins in DADS induced apoptosis. Histone deacetylation inhibitors (HDACi) are known to suppress cancer growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Here it is shown that DADS has HDACi properties in MCF-7 cells as it lowers the removal of an acetyl group from an acetylated substrate and induces histone-4 (H4) hyper-acetylation. The data thus indicate that the HDACi properties of DADS may be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells.Nutrition and Cancer 11/2012; 64(8):1251-60. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, the issue of herbal medicine-drug interactions has generated significant concern. Such interactions can increase the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g. warfarin, ciclosporin and digoxin). The present article summarizes herbal medicine-drug interactions involving mainly inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or drug transporters. An increasing number of in vitro and animal studies, case reports and clinical trials evaluating such interactions have been reported, and the majority of the interactions may be difficult to predict. Potential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic interactions of commonly used herbal medicines (black cohosh, garlic, Ginkgo, goldenseal, kava, milk thistle, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, saw palmetto and St John's wort) with conventional drugs are presented, and sometimes the results are contradictory. Clinical implications of herbal medicine-drug interactions depend on a variety of factors, such as the co-administered drugs, the patient characteristics, the origin of the herbal medicines, the composition of their constituents and the applied dosage regimens. To optimize the use of herbal medicines, further controlled studies are urgently needed to explore their potential for interactions with conventional drugs and to delineate the underlying mechanisms.Clinical Pharmacokinetics 02/2012; 51(2):77-104. · 6.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phytochemical research has revealed that organic sulfur-containing compounds (OSCs) from Allium species exert biological effects, that might be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of a range of diseases, such as infections, cardiovascular and metabolic affections, cancers and related indispositions. Focusing physiological activities of these compounds in the context of cancer, it became clear from both epidemiological studies in men and experimental studies in diverse models, that the OSCs have a strong potential to prevent or to treat cancers even with selectivity against non-neoplastic cells. Though underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood, several parts of their modes and mechanisms of action were elucidated: Pivotal molecular targets of as well chemoprevention as chemotherapy are metabolic, transporter or repair enzymes strongly affecting cell death, proliferation and formation of metastases. Accordingly effects are not restricted to the run of cell death programs, but they moreover comprise the strongly interdepending immune and inflammatory systems. Respectively, several hypotheses exist which are based on chemical properties of sulfur as the “pharmacophor” of the compounds appearing in up to ten different oxidation states (−2 to +6). Hence compounds can undergo redox-reactions and electrostatic interactions, making reactive oxygen species (ROS) a key feature of their mechanisms of action.Phytochemistry Reviews 04/2012; 8(2):349-368. · 4.15 Impact Factor