Differential effects of garlic oil and its three major organosulfur components on the hepatic detoxification system in rats.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the modulatory effect of garlic oil and its three organosulfur compounds, diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), on rat hepatic detoxification enzyme activity, and protein and mRNA expression. Rats were orally administered garlic oil (80 or 200 mg/kg bw), DAS (20 or 80 mg/kg bw), DADS (80 mg/kg bw), or DATS (70 mg/kg bw) three times a week for 6 weeks. Control rats received corn oil. According to the results, garlic oil and DAS in dosages of 200 and 80 mg/kg bw, respectively, significantly increased pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity as compared with the that of the control rats (P < 0.05). In contrast, N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase activity in rats that received DADS and DATS was significantly lower than that in the control rats (P < 0.05). Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and erythromycin demethylase activities were not influenced by garlic oil, DAS, DADS, or DATS. To the phase II enzyme, garlic oil, DADS, and DATS significantly increased the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity toward ethacrynic aicd (P < 0.05). Immunoblot assay showed that the protein contents of cytochrome P450 1A1, 2B1, and 3A1 were increased by garlic oil and each of three allyl sulfides, and the change among the allyl sulfides was in the order of DAS > DADS > DATS. The placental form of GST (PGST) level was also increased by garlic oil and the three allyl sulfides, but the increase among the allyl sulfides was DATS congruent with DADS > DAS. P450 2E1, however, was suppressed by each garlic component. Northern blot results indicated that the changes in P450 1A1, 2B1, 3A1, and PGST mRNA levels by garlic components were similar to those noted in the protein levels. These results indicate that the modulatory effect of garlic oil on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes can be attributed to its three major allyl sulfide components DAS, DADS, and DATS. These three allyl sulfides vary in modulatory activity, and this variation is related to the number of sulfur atoms in the molecule.
Article: Oxathiolene oxides: a novel family of compounds that induce ferritin, glutathione S-transferase, and other proteins of the phase II response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Compounds that induce the synthesis of cytoprotective phase II enzymes have shown promise as cancer chemopreventive agents. Although chemically diverse, phase II enzyme inducers are capable of participating in Michael reaction chemistry. We have synthesized a novel class of organosulfur compounds, termed oxathiolene oxides (OTEOs). Based on their chemical properties, we hypothesized that these compounds could function as phase II enzyme inducers. Northern blot analysis showed that oxathiolene oxides induce the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and ferritin H and L mRNA in a concentration-dependent fashion in a normal embryonic mouse liver cell line, BNLCL.2. OTEO-562 (3-cyclohexenyl-4-methyl-1,2-oxathiol-3-ene-2-oxide) was the strongest inducer. Western blot analysis demonstrated that GST-alpha and ferritin H protein levels were also induced in cells treated with OTEO-562, as was total GST and NQO1 enzyme activity. Further, induction of NQO1 activity by OTEO-562 was equivalent in aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor wild-type and Ah receptor mutant cell lines, suggesting that oxathiolene oxides activate phase II enzymes by an Ah receptor-independent mechanism. Consistent with this observation, OTEO-562 failed to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 mRNA. These results suggest that oxathiolene oxides may merit further investigation as candidate chemopreventive agents.Biochemical Pharmacology 05/2003; 65(8):1261-9. · 4.70 Impact Factor
Article: Suppressive effect of the ethanolic extract of adlay bran on cytochrome P-450 enzymes in rat liver and lungs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adlay ( Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop and is reported to protect against various diseases such as cancer. To investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of adlay bran (ABE) on drug-metabolizing enzymes and glutathione-related antioxidant enzymes in rats, three groups of eight male Sprague-Dawley rats each were fed a control diet or a diet containing 5 or 10% ABE for 4 weeks. Significant decreases in microsomal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1-catalyzed ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, CYP2C-catalyzed diclofenac 4-hydroxylation, CYP2D-catalyzed dextromethorphan O-demethylation, and CYP3A-catalyzed testosterone 6β-hydroxylation in the liver and CYP1A1-catalyzed ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation in the lungs of rats fed ABE were observed. Immunoblot analyses also showed decreases of CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C6, 2C11, 2D1, 2E1, 3A1, and 3A2 in the liver and CYP1A1 in the lungs. Furthermore, rats fed the 10% ABE diet had a higher glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activities in the lungs, but such an increase was not noted in the liver. Inhibition of various CYP-catalyzed enzyme reactions by ABE in rat and human liver microsomes had also been shown. The results of this study indicate that ABE feeding may suppress CYP enzyme activities and CYP protein expression in the liver and lungs of rats. Moreover, the increase of the antioxidant potential by ABE is tissue-specific.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2011; 59(8):4306-14. · 2.82 Impact Factor