Reliability of measurements obtained with the modified Ashworth scale in the lower extremities of people with stroke.
ABSTRACT Abnormal muscle tone is a common motor disorder following stroke, which may require rehabilitation. The Modified Ashworth Scale is a 6-point rating scale that is used to measure muscle tone. The interrater and intrarater reliability of measurements obtained with the scale remain equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measurements obtained with the scale in the lower limb of patients with stroke.
Twenty patients were tested 2 weeks after their stroke, and 12 patients were tested 12 weeks after their stroke.
Gastrocnemius, soleus, and quadriceps femoris muscles on the hemiplegic side were tested.
Interrater reliability for 2 raters was poor, with a Kendall tau-b correlation for the combined muscle group of.062 (P=.461). For intrarater reliability, the Kendall tau-b correlation was.567 (P<.001). The agreement within one rater occurred mostly on the grade of 0.
The Modified Ashworth Scale yielded reliable measurements in the lower limb for a single examiner, and agreement was best on the grade of 0. The reliability between examiners was not good, which may bring into question the validity of measurements obtained with the scale.
Article: The development of a clinical practice stroke guideline for physiotherapists in The Netherlands: a systematic review of available evidence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To develop a clinical practice guideline for the physiotherapy management of patients with stroke as support for the clinical decision-making process, especially with respect to the selection of appropriate interventions, prognostic factors and outcome measures. Physiotherapists have a high caseload of patients with stroke, so there is a need to identify effective evidence-based physiotherapy procedures. The availability of a guideline that includes information about prognostic factors, interventions, and outcome measures would facilitate clinical decision-making. A systematic computerized literature search was performed to identify evidence concerning the use of: (i) prognostic factors related to functional recovery; (ii) physiotherapy interventions in patients with stroke; and (iii) outcome measures to assess patients' progress in functional health. Experts, physiotherapists working in the field of stroke rehabilitation, and a multidisciplinary group of health professionals reviewed the clinical applicability and feasibility of the recommendations for clinical practice and their comments were used to compose the definitive guideline. Of 9482 relevant articles, 322 were selected. These were screened for methodological quality. Seventy-two recommendations for clinical practice were retrieved from these articles and included in the guideline: Six recommendations concerned the prediction of functional recovery of activities of daily living (ADL), including walking ability and hand/arm use; 65 recommendations concerned the choice of physiotherapy interventions; and 1 recommendation concerned the choice of outcome instrument to use. A core set of seven reliable, responsive, and valid outcome measures was established, to determine impairments and activity limitations in patients with stroke. The guideline provides physiotherapists with an evidence-based instrument to assist them in their clinical decision making regarding patients with stroke. As most of the recommendations included in the guideline came from studies of patients in the post acute and chronic phase of stroke, and in general involved patients with less severe and uncomplicated stroke, more needs to be learned about the more complex cases.Disability and Rehabilitation 06/2007; 29(10):767-83. · 1.50 Impact Factor
Article: Comparison of wheelchair wheels in terms of vibration and spasticity in people with spinal cord injury.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A wheelchair undergoes vibrations while traveling over obstacles and uneven surfaces, resulting in whole body vibration of the person sitting in the wheelchair. According to clinicians, people with spinal cord injury (SCI) report that vibration evokes spasticity. The relatively new Spinergy wheelchair wheels (Spinergy, Inc; San Diego, California) are claimed to absorb more road shock then conventional steel-spoked wheelchair wheels. If this claim is true, this wheel might also reduce spasticity in people with SCI. We hypothesized that Spinergy wheels would absorb vibration, reduce perceived spasticity, and improve comfort in individuals with SCI more than standard steel-spoked wheels. To test this hypothesis, 22 nondisabled subjects performed a passive ramp test so that we could more closely examine the dampening characteristics of the Spinergy versus traditional wheels. Furthermore, 13 subjects with SCI performed an obstacle test with both wheel types. Vibrations were measured with accelerometers, and spasticity and comfort were assessed with subject-reported visual analog scales. The results of the study showed that, within the current experimental setup, the Spinergy wheels neither reduced vibration or perceived spasticity nor improved comfort in people with SCI more than the conventional steel-spoked wheels.The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 02/2008; 45(9):1269-79. · 1.78 Impact Factor
Article: Relationship between muscle strength and functional walking capacity among people with stroke.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to estimate, using the Position-Specific Global Index (PSGI) of Lower-Limb Muscle Strength, the extent to which muscle strength is independently associated with functional walking capacity. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study with 63 patients poststroke (onset between 3 and 12 months) at a major teaching hospital in an urban Canadian city. We assessed functional walking capacity with the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and muscle strength with handheld dynamometry. We established the relationship between the lower-limb muscles and functional walking capacity with the PSGI. The PSGI explained 70% (p < 0.001) of the variability in the 6MWT, whereas the index of alternate against-gravity muscle strength explained 39% and the hip flexors in a supine position explained 51%.The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 01/2011; 48(3):267-75. · 1.78 Impact Factor