PBK/TOPK Is a Novel Mitotic Kinase Which Is Upregulated in Burkitt's Lymphoma and Other Highly Proliferative Malignant Cells

Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, 22 South Greene Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
Blood Cells Molecules and Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.33). 09/2001; 27(5):825-9. DOI: 10.1006/bcmd.2001.0452
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PBK/TOPK is a recently cloned serine/threonine kinase which is phosphorylated during mitosis. Earlier work indicated that this kinase is upregulated in a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line (GA-10). To determine whether PBK/TOPK is upregulated in other mitotically active neoplastic cell lines and tissues, Northern analysis was performed on a panel of malignant cell lines and on clinical samples from patients with leukemia or lymphoma. While PBK/TOPK mRNA was not detectable in normal peripheral blood cells and was weakly expressed in hyperplastic tonsillar B-cells, significantly higher levels of mRNA were detected in 8 Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, 10 other neoplastic cell lines, and 2 clinical samples-one derived from a patient with ALL and a second derived from a patient with relapsed myeloma. In addition, Northern analysis of fetal tissues showed upregulated expression of PBK/TOPK in fetal kidney, lung, spleen, brain, and testis. These data suggest that PBK/TOPK expression is increased in highly proliferative malignant cells and during normal fetal development.

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    • "T-cell-originated protein kinase was described as a MAPKK-like protein involved in p38MAPK and JNK signalling, possibly in a cell-type-dependent manner, and was more recently found to be involved in the ERK/MAPK pathway (Matsumoto et al, 2004; Nandi et al, 2004; Ayllon and O'Connor, 2007; Oh et al, 2007). T-cell-originated protein kinase is overexpressed in highly proliferating normal tissues, foetal tissues and in a wide variety of tumours in vitro, whereas the inhibition of TOPK is shown to lead to apoptosis in breast and melanoma cell lines (Simons-Evelyn et al, 2001; Zhao et al, 2001; Matsumoto et al, 2004; Nandi et al, 2004; Dougherty et al, 2005; Park et al, 2006; Zykova et al, 2006). Most recently, Herrero-Martin et al (2009) evaluated TOPK expression in Ewing sarcoma cell lines and found that the inhibition of TOPK led to a decrease in the proliferation rate and an important change in cell growth, indicating that TOPK could have a significant role in Ewing sarcoma biology. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of the oncogenic MAPKK-like protein T-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) stratified by KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with sporadic, hereditary and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with anti-EGFR therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TOPK was performed on four study groups. Group 1 included two subgroups of 543 and 501 sporadic CRC patients used to test the reliability of TOPK expression by IHC. In Group 2, representing an additional 222 sporadic CRCs, the prognostic effect of TOPK stratified by KRAS and BRAF was assessed. The prognostic effect of TOPK was further analysed in Group 3, representing 71 hereditary Lynch syndrome-associated CRC patients. In Group 4, the predictive and prognostic value of TOPK was analysed on 45 metastatic patients treated with cetuximab or panitumumab stratified by KRAS and BRAF gene status. In both sporadic CRC subgroups (Group 1), associations of diffuse TOPK expression with clinicopathological features were reproducible. Molecular analysis of sporadic CRCs in Group 2 showed that diffuse TOPK expression was associated with KRAS and BRAF mutations (p<0.001) and with poor outcome in patients with either mutation in univariate and multivariate analysis (P=0.017). In hereditary patients (Group 3), diffuse TOPK was linked to advanced pT stage. In metastatic patients treated with anti-EGFR therapy (Group 4), diffuse TOPK expression was linked to dismal outcome despite objective response to treatment (P=0.01). TOPK expression is an unfavourable prognostic indicator in sporadic patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations and also in patients with metastatic disease experiencing a response to anti-EGFR therapies. The inhibition of TOPK, which could benefit 30-40% of CRC patients, may represent a new avenue of investigation for targeted therapy.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2009; 102(1):151-61. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605452 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    • "PBK is induced by EGF or EGF plus IGF-I in MCF-10A cells, but is not required for progression through the cell cycle PBK expression has previously been associated with mitosis and it has been proposed to be a target of the mitotic kinase cdk1 (Simons-Evelyn et al., 2001; Matsumoto et al., 2004). In transformed cells, IGF-I can induce PBK expression, but not in MCF-10A cells (Figure 1b). "
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of the insulin-like growth-factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) to tumour progression is well documented. To identify new mediators of IGF-IR function in cancer, we recently isolated genes differentially expressed in cells overexpressing the IGF-IR. Among these was the serine/threonine kinase PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase), previously associated with highly proliferative cells and tissues. Here, we show that PBK is expressed at high levels in tumour cell lines compared with non-transformed cells. IGF-I could induce PBK expression only in transformed cells, whereas epidermal growth factor could induce PBK in non-transformed MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. Suppression of PBK expression using small interfering RNA did not prevent progression through the cell cycle, but caused decreased proliferation over time in culture, and reduced clonogenic growth in soft agarose. PBK knockdown impaired p38 activation after long-term stimulation with different growth factors and reduced DU145 cells motility. Suppressed PBK expression also resulted in an impaired response to DNA damage that was evident by the decreased generation of gamma-H2AX, increased DNA damage and decreased cell survival. Taken together, the data indicate that PBK is necessary for appropriate activation and function of the p38 pathway by growth factors. Thus, enhanced expression of PBK may facilitate tumour growth by mediating p38 activation and by helping cells to overcome DNA damage.
    Oncogene 06/2007; 26(24):3451-61. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210142 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    • "PBK/TOPK was not previously known to be involved in any facet of CNS development, but work in non-neural cells suggested that it was expressed in a variety of specialized, proliferative cell types: PBK/TOPK expression was detected in male germ line progenitor cells, activated T-cells, and a variety of lymphomas and leukemias. However, it was absent in WiDr and HT-29 colon cancer cells, indicating that it was not ubiquitously expressed in cycling cells (Abe et al., 2000; Simons-Evelyn et al., 2001; Zhao et al., 2001). Previous work also suggested that PBK/ TOPK was a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MAPKK) family (Abe et al., 2000; Gaudet et al., 2000; Matsumoto et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: We performed genomic subtraction coupled to microarray-based gene expression profiling and identified the PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1)-binding kinase/T-LAK (lymphokine-activated killer T cell) cell originating protein kinase (PBK/TOPK) as a gene highly enriched in neural stem cell cultures. Previous studies have identified PBK/TOPK as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase that phosphorylated P38 MAPK but with no known expression or function in the nervous system. First, using a novel, bioinformatics-based approach to assess cross-correlation in large microarray datasets, we generated the hypothesis of a cell-cycle-related role for PBK/TOPK in neural cells. We then demonstrated that both PBK/TOPK and P38 are activated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in neuronal progenitor cells in vitro, and inhibition of this pathway disrupts progenitor proliferation and self-renewal, a core feature of progenitors. In vivo, PBK/TOPK is expressed in rapidly proliferating cells in the adult subependymal zone (SEZ) and early postnatal cerebellar external granular layer. Using an approach based on transgenically targeted ablation and lineage tracing in mice, we show that PBK/TOPK-positive cells in the SEZ are GFAP negative but arise from GFAP-positive neural stem cells during adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, ablation of the adult stem cell population leads to concomitant loss of PBK/TOPK-positive cells in the SEZ. Together, these studies demonstrate that PBK/TOPK is a marker for transiently amplifying neural progenitors in the SEZ. Additionally, they suggest that PBK/TOPK plays an important role in these progenitors, and further implicates the P38 MAPK pathway in general, as an important regulator of progenitor proliferation and self-renewal.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 12/2005; 25(46):10773-85. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3207-05.2005 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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