Prospective trial of chemotherapy and donor leukocyte infusions for relapse of advanced myeloid malignancies after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT Patients with advanced myeloid malignancies who experience relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have a poor prognosis. Long-term survival after chemotherapy alone, second myeloablative transplant, or donor leukocyte infusions (DLIs) alone is unusual. DLIs may have minimal effectiveness in advanced disease because adequate cellular responses are not able to develop in the presence of bulky, fast-growing disease. A chemotherapy strategy was used to debulk disease before administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed DLIs.
Sixty-five patients experiencing hematologic relapse of myeloid malignancy after HLA-matched sibling BMT were prospectively treated with cytarabine-based chemotherapy, then G-CSF-primed DLIs. No prophylactic immunosuppression was provided.
Twenty-seven of 57 assessable patients experienced a complete response. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was observed in 56% of the patients. Treatment-related mortality was 23%. Overall survival at 2 years for the entire cohort was 19%. Patients with a complete response were more likely to survive, with 1- and 2-year survival rates of 51% and 41%, respectively, with a median follow-up of more than 2 years. The 1-year survival for nonresponders was 5%. A posttransplant remission lasting more than 6 months before relapse was associated with a higher likelihood of response. GVHD was not required for durable remission.
Salvage treatment with chemotherapy before DLI can help some patients with advanced myeloid relapse and is not dependent on GVHD. Patients with short remissions after BMT are unlikely to benefit from this approach, and the approach is associated with significant treatment-related mortality. Modifications of this approach or entirely different approaches will be required for most patients with this difficult clinical problem.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dissociation of graft-versus-leukemia (GvL). effects from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is the ultimate goal of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in the treatment of hematological malignancies. The pivotal role of donor T cells in both anti-leukemic and anti-host reactivity of allogeneic stem cell grafts has been known since the first transplants for fatal leukemia were performed over 25 years ago. Growing understanding of the T cell-mediated GvL response has revealed the importance of host-type antigen-presenting cells and the capacity of adoptively transferred donor T cells in inducing anti-leukemic responses, and has led to a re-evaluation of the relative roles of the pre-transplant conditioning regimen and the allogeneic stem cell graft. Key advances in clinical practice such as reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusions are now routinely applied and allow for the induction of potent antileukemic effects, while GvHD can to some extent be controlled. Other strategies to separate T cell-mediated antileukemic effects from GvHD are antigen-specific adoptive T cell-therapy and recipient lymphocyte infusion (RLI) and these are in an experimental stage. Importantly, a role for alloreactive natural killer cells in mediating GvL without GvHD has emerged in patient studies of MHC haplotype-mismatched alloHSCT. Finally, experimental studies indicate that naturally occurring regulatory T cells may differentially affect GvHD and GvL.Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2007; 12:4568-94. · 3.52 Impact Factor
Article: A phase 1 trial of donor lymphocyte infusions expanded and activated ex vivo via CD3/CD28 costimulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) induce potent graft versus tumor (GVT) effects for relapsed chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) but are disappointing for other diseases. Disease resistance can occur if donor T cells are not appropriately activated in vivo. Ex vivo T-cell activation might overcome disease-induced anergy and augment GVT activity. We performed a phase 1 trial of ex vivo-activated DLI (aDLI) for 18 patients with relapse after SCT. Activated donor T cells are produced through costimulation with anti-CD3- and anti-CD28-coated beads. Patients with aggressive malignancies received induction chemotherapy, and all patients received conventional DLI (median, 1.5 x 10(8) mononuclear cells/kg) followed 12 days later by aDLI. Activated DLI was dose escalated from 1 x 10(6) to 1 x 10(8) CD3+ cells per kilogram in 5 levels. Seven patients developed acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) (5 grade I-II, 2 grade III), and 4 developed chronic GVHD. Eight patients achieved complete remission, including 4 of 7 with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 2 of 4 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 1 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 1 of 2 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Four complete responders relapsed while 4 remain alive in remission a median 23 months after aDLI. Overall, 10 of 18 remain alive 11 to 53 months after aDLI. Adoptive transfer of costimulated activated allogeneic T cells is feasible, does not result in excessive GVHD, and may contribute to durable remissions in diseases where conventional DLI has been disappointing.Blood 03/2006; 107(4):1325-31. · 9.90 Impact Factor