15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) - A prostaglandin D-2 metabolite generated during inflammatory processes
ABSTRACT Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), a major cyclooxygenase product in a variety of tissues, readily undergoes dehydration to yield the cyclopentenone-type PGs of the J(2) series, such as 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), which have been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Meanwhile, the mechanism of these effects is not well understood and the natural site and the extent of its production in vivo remain unclear. In the present study, we raised a monoclonal antibody specific to 15d-PGJ(2) and determined its production in inflammation-related events. The monoclonal antibody (mAb11G2) was raised against the 15d-PGJ(2)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate and was found to recognize free 15d-PGJ(2) specifically. The presence of 15d-PGJ(2) in vivo was immunohistochemically verified in the cytoplasm of most of the foamy macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, the immunostaining of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages with mAb11G2 demonstrated an enhanced intracellular accumulation of 15d-PGJ(2), suggesting that the PGD(2) metabolic pathway, generating the anti-inflammatory PGs, is indeed utilized in the cells during inflammation. The activation of macrophages also resulted in the extracellular production of PGD(2), which was associated with a significant increase in the extracellular 15d-PGJ(2) levels, and the extracellular 15d-PGJ(2) production was reproduced by incubating PGD(2) in a cell-free medium and in phosphate-buffered saline. Moreover, using a chiral high performance liquid chromatography method for separation of PGD(2) metabolites, we established a novel metabolic pathway, in which PGD(2) is converted to 15d-PGJ(2) via an albumin-independent mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) reduces inflammation and has been identified as an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin in numerous animal models. In this study, we investigated both effects of 15d-PGJ2 and its protection mechanism in concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice. Materials and Methods. In vivo, Balb/C mice were injected with ConA (25 mg/kg) to induce acute autoimmune hepatitis, and 15d-PGJ2 (10 μg or 25 μg) was administered 1 h before the ConA injection. The histological grade, proinflammatory cytokine levels, and NF-κB and PPARγ activity were determined 6, 12, and 24 h after the ConA injection. In vitro, LO2 cells and RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with 15d-PGJ2 (2 μM) 1 h before the stimulation with ConA (30 μg/mL). The NF-κB and PPARγ activity were determined 30 min after the ConA administration. Results. Pretreatment with 15d-PGJ2 reduced the pathological effects of ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis and significantly reduced the levels of cytokines after injection. 15d-PGJ2 activated PPARγ, blocked the degradation of IκBα, and inhibited the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus. Conclusion. These results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 protects against ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis by reducing proinflammatory cytokines. This reduction in inflammation may correlate with the activation of PPARγ and the reduction in NF-κB activity.PPAR Research 07/2014; 2014:215631. DOI:10.1155/2014/215631 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostaglandins (PGs), lipid autacoids derived from arachidonic acid, play a pivotal role during inflammation. PGD2 synthase is abundantly expressed in heart tissue and PGD2 has recently been found to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PGD2 is an unstable prostanoid metabolite; therefore the objective of the present study was to elucidate whether its final dehydration product, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2, present at high levels in ischemic myocardium) might cause cardiomyocyte damage. Using specific (ant)agonists we show that 15d-PGJ2 induced formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAPKs via the PGD2 receptor DP2 (but not DP1 or PPARγ) in the murine atrial cardiomyocyte HL-1 cell line. Activation of the DP2-ROS-MAPK axis by 15d-PGJ2 enhanced transcription and translation of TNFα and induced apoptosis in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Silencing of TNFα significantly attenuated the extrinsic (caspase-8) and intrinsic apoptotic pathways (bax and caspase-9), caspase-3 activation and downstream PARP cleavage and γH2AX activation. The apoptotic machinery was unaffected by intracellular calcium, transcription factor NF-κB and its downstream target p53. Of note, 9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ2 (lacking the electrophilic carbon atom in the cyclopentenone ring) did not activate cellular responses. Selected experiments performed in primary murine cardiomyocytes confirmed data obtained in HL-1 cells namely that the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades are activated via DP2/MAPK/TNFα signaling. We conclude that the reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group of 15d-PGJ2 is responsible for the pronounced upregulation of TNFα promoting cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of DP2 receptors could provide a possibility to modulate 15d-PGJ2-induced myocardial injury.International Journal of Cardiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.03.086 · 6.18 Impact Factor