[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immigration is a major force sustaining the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States.
To describe trends and characteristics of foreign-born persons with TB and the implications for TB program planning and policy development.
Descriptive analysis of US TB surveillance data from case reports submitted from 1993 to 1998.
Demographic and clinical characteristics of foreign-born persons with TB.
The number of TB cases among foreign-born persons increased 2.6%, from 7402 in 1993 to 7591 in 1998, and the proportion of US cases that were foreign-born increased from 29.8% to 41.6%. During 1993-1998, the TB case rate was 32.9 per 100000 population in foreign-born persons compared with 5.8 per 100000 in US-born persons. Six states reported 73.4% of foreign-born cases (California, New York, Texas, Florida, New Jersey, and Illinois). Approximately two thirds of these cases were originally from Mexico, the Philippines, Vietnam, India, China, Haiti, and South Korea. Among those for whom date of US entry was known, 51.5% arrived 5 years or less prior to the diagnosis of TB. Most were male and aged 25 to 44 years. During 1993-1996, the proportion receiving some portion of treatment under directly observed therapy increased from 27.3% to 59.1% and approximately 70% completed therapy in 12 months. The rate of primary resistance to isoniazid was 11.6% and to both isoniazid and rifampin was 1.7%. Conclusions As the United States moves toward the goal of TB elimination, success will depend increasingly on reducing the impact of TB in foreign-born persons. Continued efforts to tailor local TB control strategies to the foreign-born community and commitment to the global TB battle are essential.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2001; 284(22):2894-900. · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of Tuberculosis. 1. A 6-mo regimen consisting of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide given for 2 mo followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 mo is the preferred treatment for patients with fully susceptible organisms who adhere to treatment. Ethambutol (or streptomycin in children too young to be monitored for visual acuity) should be included in the initial regimen until the results of drug susceptibility studies are available, unless there is little possibility of drug resistance (i.e., there is less than 4% primary resistance to isoniazid in the community, and the patient has had no previous treatment with antituberculosis medications, is not from a country with a high prevalence of drug resistance, and has no known exposure to a drug-resistant case). This four-drug, 6-mo regimen is effective even when the infecting organism is resistant to INH. This recommendation applies to both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. However, in the presence of HIV infection it is critically important to assess the clinical and bacteriologic response. If there is evidence of a slow or suboptimal response, therapy should be prolonged as judged on a case by case basis. 2. Alternatively, a 9-mo regimen of isoniazid and rifampin is acceptable for persons who cannot or should not take pyrazinamide. Ethambutol (or streptomycin in children too young to be monitored for visual acuity) should also be included until the results of drug susceptibility studies are available, unless there is little possibility of drug resistance (see Section 1 above). If INH resistance is demonstrated, rifampin and ethambutol should be continued for a minimum of 12 mo. 3. Consideration should be given to treating all patients with directly observed therapy (DOT). 4. Multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (i.e., resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin) presents difficult treatment problems. Treatment must be individualized and based on susceptibility studies. In such cases, consultation with an expert in tuberculosis is recommended. 5. Children should be managed in essentially the same ways as adults using appropriately adjusted doses of the drugs. This document addresses specific important differences between the management of adults and children. 6. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis should be managed according to the principles and with the drug regimens outlined for pulmonary tuberculosis, except for children who have miliary tuberculosis, bone/joint tuberculosis, or tuberculous meningitis who should receive a minimum of 12 mo of therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/1994; 149(5):1359-74. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.149.5.8173779 · 13.00 Impact Factor
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