Medication management ability assessment: results from a performance-based measure in older outpatients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Patients with schizophrenia who adhere to physicians' recommended use of medications are less likely to relapse than those who do not. Self-report measures of adherence have been criticized on a number of grounds. Here we describe a performance-based measure of medication management, the Medication Management Ability Assessment (MMAA), which represents a modification of the Medication Management Test used in individuals with HIV infection. Subjects were 104 patients older than 45 years with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 33 normal comparison subjects (NCs). Subjects participated in a role-play task (MMAA) that simulated a prescribed medication regimen similar in complexity to one that an older person is likely to be exposed to. The total number of pills over that prescribed, total number of pills under that prescribed, and total number of correct responses were calculated. Self-report and prescription record data on adherence as well as data on measures of psychopathology, global cognitive status, and other clinical measures were also gathered. MMAA role-plays required 15 minutes, and its 1-week test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.96). Patients committed significantly more errors in medication management compared with NCs. Significantly more patients were classified as being nonadherent (i.e., taking +/-5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% of prescribed pills) compared with NCs. Patients with more severe cognitive deficits performed worse on the MMAA. MMAA performance was significantly related to prescription refill records, performance-based measures of everyday functioning, and self-reported quality of life. The MMAA is a useful instrument for observing ability to manage medications in patients with schizophrenia. The measure was related to severity of cognitive impairment, suggesting that adherence may improve with psychotropic and psychosocial interventions that target these deficits.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is increasing need for early, pro-active programs that can delay dementia diagnosis and enhance well-being of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their care-partners (i.e., care-dyads). This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a combined cognitive rehabilitation and multi-family group treatment (CR-MFG) that was designed to facilitate adoption of newly learned cognitive strategies into the care-dyads everyday lives. Analyzed data included 23 care-dyads who participated in CR-MFG treatment and 23 care-dyads in standard care (SC). The 3-month intervention consisted of individual joining sessions, an educational workshop, and 20/twice weekly multifamily memory strategy training and problem-solving sessions. Everyday functioning, memory, and psychological functioning (i.e., quality-of-life, depression, coping) were assessed. The CR-MFG intervention was associated with significant post-test group differences and improved post-test performances by the MCI participants on performance-based measures of everyday functioning and neuropsychological tests of memory. There was also some suggestion that CR-MFG care-partners perceived positive change in the everyday functioning of the MCI participants. In contrast, no post-test group differences were found for either care-dyad member on the self-report psychological measures; care-partners in the treatment group did self-report improved coping behaviors at post-test. These 3-month results are preliminary but suggestive that CR-MFG may produce modest, practical everyday functional benefits for persons with MCI. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-12).Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 09/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Although it is well known that Parkinson's disease (PD) with dementia results in functional decline, little is known about the impact of mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI) on day-to-day functioning. Method: Forty-one individuals with PD-MCI, 56 PD patients with normal cognition (PD-NC), and 47 healthy older adults were administered two performance-based measures of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) that evaluated medication and financial management. Informants of the PD patients were also administered an IADL questionnaire. Results: There were no significant differences between PD-NC and healthy older adults on the performance-based measures of medication and financial management. However, PD-MCI patients demonstrated significantly lower scores on the performance-based measures of medication and financial management compared with healthy older adults. PD-MCI patients were also impaired compared with PD-NC patients on performance-based medication management, but no difference between these groups was observed for ability to manage finances. Performance-based financial and medication management did not correlate with scores on neuropsychological measures in PD-MCI patients. PD-MCI and PD-NC patients showed comparable scores on the informant-based IADL questionnaire. Conclusions: Performance-based measures of IADLs, particularly medication management ability, are sensitive to subtle functional declines in PD-MCI. Although impairment in performance-based measures is associated with cognitive status in PD, IADLs may be a separate domain of functioning from cognitive functioning in PD-MCI as these measures did not correlate with performance on the neuropsychological measures. Overall, performance-based assessment of IADLs may add to the clinical evaluation of PD-MCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).Neuropsychology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States.Psychiatry research. 04/2014;