Medication Management Ability Assessment: Results From a Performance-Based Measure in Older Outpatients With Schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0680, USA.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.24). 03/2002; 22(1):11-9. DOI: 10.1097/00004714-200202000-00003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients with schizophrenia who adhere to physicians' recommended use of medications are less likely to relapse than those who do not. Self-report measures of adherence have been criticized on a number of grounds. Here we describe a performance-based measure of medication management, the Medication Management Ability Assessment (MMAA), which represents a modification of the Medication Management Test used in individuals with HIV infection. Subjects were 104 patients older than 45 years with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 33 normal comparison subjects (NCs). Subjects participated in a role-play task (MMAA) that simulated a prescribed medication regimen similar in complexity to one that an older person is likely to be exposed to. The total number of pills over that prescribed, total number of pills under that prescribed, and total number of correct responses were calculated. Self-report and prescription record data on adherence as well as data on measures of psychopathology, global cognitive status, and other clinical measures were also gathered. MMAA role-plays required 15 minutes, and its 1-week test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.96). Patients committed significantly more errors in medication management compared with NCs. Significantly more patients were classified as being nonadherent (i.e., taking +/-5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% of prescribed pills) compared with NCs. Patients with more severe cognitive deficits performed worse on the MMAA. MMAA performance was significantly related to prescription refill records, performance-based measures of everyday functioning, and self-reported quality of life. The MMAA is a useful instrument for observing ability to manage medications in patients with schizophrenia. The measure was related to severity of cognitive impairment, suggesting that adherence may improve with psychotropic and psychosocial interventions that target these deficits.

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    • "Currently, assessment of everyday functioning might be done by instruments that measure what someone is apt to do (Functional Capacity) or by those focusing on what they actually do (Real-World Functioning) (McKibbin et al., 2004). Functional Capacity approach uses performance-based instruments developed to assess everyday activities, including adaptive (Velligan et al., 2007), social (Bellack, 2006; Patterson et al., 2001a), community (Patterson et al., 2001b) and medicament-managing skills (Patterson et al., 2002). Evaluation takes place in a controlled environment, by means of a role-played situation where individuals are asked to perform, sometimes using props, as if they were in the real world. "
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    ABSTRACT: The UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA) is a measure of Functional Capacity and assesses skills involved in community tasks. It has good psychometrics properties, and is currently recommended as a co-primary assessment of cognition in the MATRICS Project. To our knowledge so far, there are no studies in western developing countries concerning Functional Capacity in Schizophrenia. The aims of this study were to translate, culturally adapt and validate the UPSA to assess Functional Capacity in community-dwelling patients with Schizophrenia living in Brazil. Eighty-two subjects (52 patients, 30 controls) were evaluated using: the Brazilian version of the UPSA (UPSA-1-BR), PANSS, Personal and Social Performance (PSP) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In the reliability test, UPSA-1-BR showed good Internal Consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.88) and strong correlation between test and retest (4-month gap; r = 0.91; p < 0.01). Spearman’s rho values showed a moderate correlation between UPSA-1-BR and both PSP (0.50; p < 0.01) and GAF (0.46; p < 0.01) scores. UPSA-1-BR is capable of differentiating people with and without Schizophrenia. Patients scored lower than controls (58.9 versus 79.1), with an AUC of 0.79 (95%IC: 0.69–0.89). Sensitivity and specificity values of 0.71 and 0.70, respectively, were found in the cut-off point of 73.5, for separation of patients and controls, with predictive values of 80% (positive) and 58% (negative). UPSA-B-BR was also evaluated. UPSA-1-BR and its brief version presented adequate psychometric properties and proved to be valid and reliable instruments in the assessment of Functional Capacity in subjects with Schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research: Cognition 01/2015; 22(1). DOI:10.1016/j.scog.2014.12.002
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    • "pill organizers). Participants also completed the medication management ability assessment (MMAA; Patterson et al., 2002), an objective, well-validated measure of ability to follow a series of medication instructions , role-played as if taking the required medications over the course of a day. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for medication non-adherence in older adults is important in order to enhance screening and intervention efforts designed to improve medication-taking behavior and health outcomes. The current study sought to determine the unique contribution of prospective memory (PM) (i.e. 'remembering to remember') to successful self-reported medication management in older adults. Methods: Sixty-five older adults with current medication prescriptions completed a comprehensive research evaluation of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and neurocognitive functioning, which included the memory for adherence to medication scale (MAMS), prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire (PRMQ), and a performance-based measure of PM that measured both semantically related and semantically unrelated cue-intention (i.e. when-what) pairings. Results: A series of hierarchical regressions controlling for biopsychosocial, other neurocognitive, and medication-related factors showed that elevated complaints on the PM scale of the PRMQ and worse performance on an objective semantically unrelated event-based PM task were independent predictors of poorer medication adherence as measured by the MAMS. Conclusions: PM plays an important role in self-report of successful medication management among older adults. Findings may have implications for screening for older individuals 'at risk' of non-adherence, as well as the development of PM-based interventions to improve medication adherence and, ultimately, long-term health outcomes in older adults.
    Aging and Mental Health 01/2014; 18(6). DOI:10.1080/13607863.2013.875126 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Materials The Medication Management Ability Assessment Manual (MMAA; Patterson et al., 2002 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Impaired adherence to medication regimens is a serious concern for individuals with schizophrenia linked to relapse and poorer outcomes. One possible reason for poor adherence to medication is poor ability to remember future intentions, labeled prospective memory skills. It has been demonstrated in several studies that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in prospective memory that are linked to everyday life skills. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, examining the relationship of a clinical measure of prospective memory to medication management skills, a key element of successful adherence. Methods: In this Study 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 25 healthy adults were administered a standardized test battery that included measures of prospective memory, medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms. Results: Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated impairments in prospective memory (both time and event-based) relative to healthy controls. Performance on the test of prospective memory was correlated with the standardized measure of medication management in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, the test of prospective memory predicted skills in medication adherence even after measures of neurocognition were accounted for. Conclusions: This suggests that prospective memory may play a key role in medication management skills and thus should be a target of cognitive remediation programs.
    Neuropsychology 11/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1037/neu0000040 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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