Activated Cdc42-associated kinase-2 (ACK2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that serves as a specific effector for Cdc42, a Rho family small G-protein. Recently, we have found that ACK2 directly interacts with clathrin heavy chain through a clathrin-binding motif that is conserved in all endocytic adaptor proteins and regulates clathrin assembly, suggesting that ACK2 plays a role in clathrin-coated vesicle endocytosis (Yang, W., Lo, C. G., Dispenza, T., and Cerione, R. A. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 17468-17473). Here we report the identification of another binding partner for ACK2 that has previously been implicated in endocytosis, namely the sorting nexin protein SH3PX1 (sorting nexin 9). The interaction occurs between a proline-rich domain of ACK2 and the Src homology 3 domain (SH3) of SH3PX1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicate that ACK2, clathrin, and SH3PX1 form a complex in cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of SH3PX1, whereas co-transfection of ACK2 with SH3PX1 resulted in the constitutive phosphorylation of SH3PX1. However, co-transfection of the kinase-dead mutant ACK2(K158R) with SH3PX1 blocked EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SH3PX1, indicating that the EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of SH3PX1 is mediated by ACK2. EGF receptor levels were significantly decreased following EGF stimulation of cells co-expressing ACK2 and SH3PX1, thus highlighting a novel role for ACK2, working together with SH3PX1 to promote the degradation of the EGF receptor.
"When imaging Egfr-EGFP in the AS for the apoptosis study, we noticed that in addition to localizing cortically in AS cells, much of the protein appeared to be accumulating in vesicles (Fig. 6F). Given the literature demonstrating that Ack family tyrosine kinases promote down regulation of Egfr by endocytosis and subsequent degradation –, we looked for evidence that AS Ack was controlling zip expression through down regulation of Egfr in this tissue. Over-expression of Ack in the AS during germband retraction causes a dramatic increase in zip levels in this tissue (Compare Fig. 6A to Fig. 6B), but co-expression with Egfr-EGFP (but not a control lacZ transgene) restored wild-type zip levels, suggesting that Ack controls zip through down regulation of Egfr (Fig. 6C, D). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During Drosophila embryogenesis the process of dorsal closure (DC) results in continuity of the embryonic epidermis, and DC is well recognized as a model system for the analysis of epithelial morphogenesis as well as wound healing. During DC the flanking lateral epidermal sheets stretch, align, and fuse along the dorsal midline, thereby sealing a hole in the epidermis occupied by an extra-embryonic tissue known as the amnioserosa (AS). Successful DC requires the regulation of cell shape change via actomyosin contractility in both the epidermis and the AS, and this involves bidirectional communication between these two tissues. We previously demonstrated that transcriptional regulation of myosin from the zipper (zip) locus in both the epidermis and the AS involves the expression of Ack family tyrosine kinases in the AS in conjunction with Dpp secreted from the epidermis. A major function of Ack in other species, however, involves the negative regulation of Egfr. We have, therefore, asked what role Egfr might play in the regulation of DC. Our studies demonstrate that Egfr is required to negatively regulate epidermal expression of dpp during DC. Interestingly, we also find that Egfr signaling in the AS is required to repress zip expression in both the AS and the epidermis, and this may be generally restrictive to the progression of morphogenesis in these tissues. Consistent with this theme of restricting morphogenesis, it has previously been shown that programmed cell death of the AS is essential for proper DC, and we show that Egfr signaling also functions to inhibit or delay AS programmed cell death. Finally, we present evidence that Ack regulates zip expression by promoting the endocytosis of Egfr in the AS. We propose that the general role of Egfr signaling during DC is that of a braking mechanism on the overall progression of DC.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60180. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060180 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In some cases ACK1 overexpression impairs and knockdown promotes EGFR internalization , . These findings are in agreement with studies on transferrin receptor CME with the ACK1 splice variant ACK2 . Other work indicates that ACK1 knockdown suppresses EGFR internalization and degradation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization following ligand binding controls EGFR downstream pathway signaling activity. Internalized EGFR is poly-ubiquitinated by Cbl to promote lysosome-mediated degradation and signal downregulation. ACK1 is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that interacts with ubiquitinated EGFR to facilitate EGFR degradation. Dynamic reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton controlled by the actin related protein (Arp)2/3 complex is important in regulating EGFR endocytosis and vesicle trafficking. How ACK1-mediated EGFR internalization cooperates with Arp2/3-based actin dynamics during EGFR downregulation is unclear.
Here we show that ACK1 directly binds and phosphorylates the Arp2/3 regulatory protein cortactin, potentially providing a direct link to Arp2/3-based actin dynamics during EGFR degradation. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that the cortactin SH3 domain is responsible for binding to ACK1. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that ACK1 phosphorylates cortactin on key tyrosine residues that create docking sites for adaptor proteins responsible for enhancing Arp2/3 nucleation. Analysis with phosphorylation-specific antibodies determined that EGFR-induced cortactin tyrosine phosphorylation is diminished coincident with EGFR degradation, whereas ERK1/2 cortactin phosphorylation utilized in promoting activation of the Arp2/3 regulator N-WASp is sustained during EGFR downregulation. Cortactin and ACK1 localize to internalized vesicles containing EGF bound to EGFR visualized by confocal microscopy. RNA interference and rescue studies indicate that ACK1 and the cortactin SH3 domain are essential for ligand-mediated EGFR internalization.
Cortactin is a direct binding partner and novel substrate of ACK1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin by ACK1 creates an additional means to amplify Arp2/3 dynamics through N-WASp activation, potentially contributing to the overall necessary tensile and/or propulsive forces utilized during EGFR endocytic internalization and trafficking involved in receptor degradation.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e44363. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0044363 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"After receptor stimulation by EGF, Ack1 is recruited to an EGFR complex  . This complex promotes the activation of Ack1  and EGFR degradation     as well as Ack1 turnover  . The EGF-induced degradation of Ack1 is signaled by ubiquitination  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ack family non-receptor tyrosine kinases are unique with regard to their domain composition and regulatory properties. Human Ack1 (activated Cdc42-associated kinase) is ubiquitously expressed and is activated by signals that include growth factors and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Stimulation leads to Ack1 autophosphorylation and to phosphorylation of additional residues in the C-terminus. The N-terminal SAM domain is required for full activation. Ack1 exerts some of its effects via protein-protein interactions that are independent of its kinase activity. In the basal state, Ack1 activity is suppressed by an intramolecular interaction between the catalytic domain and the C-terminal region. Inappropriate Ack1 activation and signaling has been implicated in the development, progression, and metastasis of several forms of cancer. Thus, there is increasing interest in Ack1 as a drug target, and studies of the regulatory properties of the enzyme may reveal features that can be exploited in inhibitor design.
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