Annexin V, annexin VI, S100A1 and S100B in developing and adult avian skeletal muscles.
ABSTRACT Annexins and S100 proteins constitute two multigenic families of Ca2+-modulated proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of both intracellular and extracellular activities. Some annexins can interact with certain S100 protein dimers thereby forming heterotetramers in which an S100 dimer crosslinks two copies of the partner annexin. It is suggested that S100 protein binding to an annexin might serve the function of regulating annexin function and annexin binding to an S100 protein might regulate S100 function. In the present study, annexin V, annexin VI (or ANXA5 and ANXA6, respectively, according to a novel nomenclature), S100A1 and S100B were analyzed for their subcellular localization in developing and adult avian skeletal muscles by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunogold cytochemistry, and western blotting, and for their ability to form annexin-S100 heterocomplex in vivo by immunoprecipitation. These four proteins displayed distinct expression patterns, ANXA5 being the first to be expressed in myotubes (i.e. at embryonic day 8), followed by ANXA6 (at embryonic day 12) and S100A1 and S100B (between embryonic day 12 and embryonic day 15). The two annexins and the two S100 proteins were found associated to different extents with the sarcolemma, membranes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and putative transverse tubules where they appeared to be co-localized from embryonic day 18 onwards. No one of these proteins was found associated with the contractile apparatus of the sarcomeres. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that ANXA6/S100A1 and ANXA6/S100B complexes formed in vivo. Whereas, ANXA5 was not recovered in S100A1 or S100B immunoprecipitates. From our data we suggest that: (i) ANXA5 and ANXA6, and S100A1 and S100B can be used as markers of skeletal muscle development; (ii) ANXA6 and S100A1 and S100B appear strategically located close to or on skeletal muscle membrane organelles that are critically involved in the regulation of Ca2+ fluxes, thus supporting previous in vitro observations implicating S100A1 and ANXA6 in the stimulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release; and (iii) ANXA6/S100A1 and ANXA6/S100B complexes can form in vivo thereby regulating each other activities and/or acting in concert to regulate membrane-associated activities.
- SourceAvailable from: Soledad Levano[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle complaints are a common consequence of cholesterol-lowering therapy. Transverse tubular (T-tubular) vacuolations occur in patients having statin-associated myopathy and, to a lesser extent, in statin-treated patients without myopathy. We have investigated quantitative changes in T-tubular morphology and looked for early indicators of T-tubular membrane repair in skeletal muscle biopsy samples from patients receiving cholesterol-lowering therapy who do not have myopathic side effects. Gene expression and protein levels of incipient membrane repair proteins were monitored in patients who tolerated statin treatment without myopathy and in statin-naive subjects. In addition, morphometry of the T-tubular system was performed. Only the gene expression for annexin A1 was up-regulated, whereas the expression of other repair genes remained unchanged. However, annexin A1 and dysferlin protein levels were significantly increased. In statin-treated patients, the volume fraction of the T-tubular system was significantly increased, but the volume fraction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum remained unchanged. A complex surface structure in combination with high mechanical loads makes skeletal muscle plasma membranes susceptible to injury. Ca(2+)-dependent membrane repair proteins such as dysferlin and annexin A1 are deployed at T-tubular sites. The up-regulation of annexin A1 gene expression and protein points to this protein as a biomarker for T-tubular repair.-Voigt, T., Sebald, H.-J., Schoenauer, R., Levano, L., Girard, T., Hoppeler, H.H., Babiychuk, E.B., Draeger, A. Annexin A1 is a biomarker of T-tubular repair in skeletal muscle of nonmyopathic patients undergoing statin therapy.The FASEB Journal 02/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, S100B, exerts both intracellular and extracellular regulatory activities. As an intracellular regulator, S100B is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, transcription, protein phosphorylation, cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and motility, and Ca(2+) homeostasis, by interacting with a wide array of proteins (i.e., enzymes, enzyme substrates, cytoskeletal subunits, scaffold/adaptor proteins, transcription factors, ubiquitin E3 ligases, ion channels) in a restricted number of cell types. As an extracellular signal, S100B engages the pattern recognition receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), on immune cells as well as on neuronal, astrocytic and microglial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, skeletal myoblasts and cardiomyocytes. However, RAGE may not be the sole receptor activated by S100B, the protein being able to enhance bFGF-FGFR1 signaling by interacting with FGFR1-bound bFGF in particular cell types. Moreover, extracellular effects of S100B vary depending on its local concentration. Increasing evidence suggests that at the concentration found in extracellular fluids in normal physiological conditions and locally upon acute tissue injury, which is up to a few nM levels, S100B exerts trophic effects in the central and peripheral nervous system and in skeletal muscle tissue thus participating in tissue homeostasis. The present commentary summarizes results implicating intracellular and extracellular S100B in tissue development, repair and regeneration.World journal of biological chemistry. 02/2013; 4(1):1-12.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Breast cancer, especially ER positive/HER2/neu negative IDC, is the predominant subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma. Although proteomic approaches have been used towards biomarker discovery in clinical breast cancer, ER positive/HER2/neu negative IDC is the least studied subtype. To discover biomarkers, as well as to understand the molecular events associated with disease progression of estrogen receptor positive/HER2/neu negative subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma, differential protein expression profiling was performed by using LC-MS(E) (MS at elevated energy). A total of 118 proteins were identified, of which 26 were differentially expressed. These identified proteins were functionally classified and their interactions and coexpression were analyzed by using bioinformatic tools PANTHER (Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships) and STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes). These proteins were found to be upregulated and were involved in cytoskeletal organization, calcium binding, and stress response. Interactions of annexin A5, actin, S100 A10, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase 1, apolipoprotein, fibrinogen, and heat shock proteins were prominent. Differential expression of these proteins was validated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. The cluster of these proteins may serve as a signature profile for estrogen receptor positive/ HER2/neu negative subtype.Omics: a journal of integrative biology 01/2013; 17(1):27-40. · 2.29 Impact Factor