Annexin V, annexin VI, S100A1 and S100B in developing and adult avian skeletal muscles.
ABSTRACT Annexins and S100 proteins constitute two multigenic families of Ca2+-modulated proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of both intracellular and extracellular activities. Some annexins can interact with certain S100 protein dimers thereby forming heterotetramers in which an S100 dimer crosslinks two copies of the partner annexin. It is suggested that S100 protein binding to an annexin might serve the function of regulating annexin function and annexin binding to an S100 protein might regulate S100 function. In the present study, annexin V, annexin VI (or ANXA5 and ANXA6, respectively, according to a novel nomenclature), S100A1 and S100B were analyzed for their subcellular localization in developing and adult avian skeletal muscles by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunogold cytochemistry, and western blotting, and for their ability to form annexin-S100 heterocomplex in vivo by immunoprecipitation. These four proteins displayed distinct expression patterns, ANXA5 being the first to be expressed in myotubes (i.e. at embryonic day 8), followed by ANXA6 (at embryonic day 12) and S100A1 and S100B (between embryonic day 12 and embryonic day 15). The two annexins and the two S100 proteins were found associated to different extents with the sarcolemma, membranes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and putative transverse tubules where they appeared to be co-localized from embryonic day 18 onwards. No one of these proteins was found associated with the contractile apparatus of the sarcomeres. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that ANXA6/S100A1 and ANXA6/S100B complexes formed in vivo. Whereas, ANXA5 was not recovered in S100A1 or S100B immunoprecipitates. From our data we suggest that: (i) ANXA5 and ANXA6, and S100A1 and S100B can be used as markers of skeletal muscle development; (ii) ANXA6 and S100A1 and S100B appear strategically located close to or on skeletal muscle membrane organelles that are critically involved in the regulation of Ca2+ fluxes, thus supporting previous in vitro observations implicating S100A1 and ANXA6 in the stimulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release; and (iii) ANXA6/S100A1 and ANXA6/S100B complexes can form in vivo thereby regulating each other activities and/or acting in concert to regulate membrane-associated activities.
- Developmental Biology - DEVELOP BIOL. 01/1992; 153(1):102-114.
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ABSTRACT: S100B is a homodimeric member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein superfamily. The protein has been implicated in cellular processes such as cell differentiation and growth, plays a role in cytoskeletal structure and function, and may have a role in neuropathological diseases, such as Alzheimers. The effects of S100B are mediated via its interaction with target proteins. While several studies have suggested that this interaction is propagated through a calcium-induced conformational change, leading to the exposure of a hydrophobic region of S100B, the molecular details behind this structural alteration remain unclear. The solution structure of calcium-saturated human S100B (Ca(2+)-S100B) has been determined by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Ca(2+)-S100B forms a well defined globular structure comprising four EF-hand calcium-binding sites and an extensive hydrophobic dimer interface. A comparison of Ca(2+)-S100B with apo S100B and Ca(2+)-calbindin D9k indicates that while calcium-binding to S100B results in little change in the site I EF-hand, it induces a backbone reorientation of the N terminus of the site II EF-hand. This reorientation leads to a dramatic change in the position of helix III relative to the other helices. The calcium-induced reorientation of calcium-binding site II results in the increased exposure of several hydrophobic residues in helix IV and the linker region. While following the general mechanism of calcium modulatory proteins, whereby a hydrophobic target site is exposed, the 'calcium switch' observed in S100B appears to be unique from that of other EF-hand proteins and may provide insights into target specificity among calcium modulatory proteins.Structure 03/1998; 6(2):211-22. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcyclin is a member of the S100 subfamily of EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins. This protein has implied roles in the regulation of cell growth and division, exhibits deregulated expression in association with cell transformation, and is found in high abundance in certain breast cancer cell lines. The novel homodimeric structural motif first identified for apo calcyclin raised the possibility that S100 proteins recognize their targets in a manner that is distinctly different from that of the prototypical EF-hand Ca2+ sensor, calmodulin. The NMR solution structure of Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin has been determined in order to identify Ca(2+)-induced structural changes and to obtain insights into the mechanism of Ca(2+)-triggered target protein recognition. The three-dimensional structure of Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin was calculated with 1372 experimental constraints, and is represented by an ensemble of 20 structures that have a backbone root mean square deviation of 1.9 A for the eight helices. Ca(2+)-bound calcyclin has the same symmetric homodimeric fold as observed for the apo protein. The helical packing within the globular domains and the subunit interface also change little upon Ca2+ binding. A distinct homology was found between the Ca(2+)-bound states of the calcyclin subunit and the monomeric S100 protein calbindin D9k. Only very modest Ca(2+)-induced changes are observed in the structure of calcyclin, in sharp contrast to the domain-opening that occurs in calmodulin and related Ca(2+)-sensor proteins. Thus, calcyclin, and by inference other members of the S100 family, must have a different mode for transducing Ca2+ signals and recognizing target proteins. This proposal raises significant questions concerning the purported roles of S100 proteins as Ca2+ sensors.Structure 03/1998; 6(2):223-31. · 5.99 Impact Factor