Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health Status and Employee Productivity

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5718, USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 02/2002; 44(1):14-20. DOI: 10.1097/00043764-200201000-00004
Source: PubMed


Workforce productivity has become a critical factor in the strength and sustainability of a company's overall business performance. Absenteeism affects productivity; however, even when employees are physically present at their jobs, they may experience decreased productivity and below-normal work quality--a concept known as decreased presenteeism. This article describes the creation and testing of a presenteeism scale evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A total of 175 county health employees completed the 34-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-34). Using these results, we identified six key items to describe presenteeism, resulting in the SPS-6. The SPS-6 has excellent psychometric characteristics, supporting the feasibility of its use in measuring health and productivity. Further validation of the SPS-6 on actual presenteeism (work loss data) or health status (health risk assessment or utilization data) is needed.

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    • "Presenteeism is the loss of performance in the work place due to health problems [1] [2]. During the last two decades, a number of studies concerning presenteeism have been conducted in the field of occupational health [3]-[5]. Recently, Bergström and colleagues (2009) reported that presenteeism adversely affected general health three years later [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Presenteeism refers to impaired performance attributed to attending work with health problems. There has been no study examining the state of presenteeism with objective measures. We compared cerebral hemodynamic changes, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), during neuropsychological tests conducted by university students with presenteeism and healthy controls. Twenty-two university students participated in the study; 11 of them with impaired performance caused by mental health problem were allocated to the presenteeism group and 11 without health problems to the control group. Presenteeism was assessed by the Presenteeism Scale for Students. To evoke hemodynamics changes, the participants completed a Word Fluency Test (WFT) and a Trail Making Test (TMT). The NIRS probes were located over the bilateral prefrontal area. Students with presenteeism had significantly higher incidences of depression than controls. However , there was no significant difference in behavioral performance examinations between the two groups. With regard to hemodynamics changes, the repeated measures analysis of covariance of the NIRS signals revealed significant interactions between group and task activation. Although we observed a significant increase in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration during the WFT among controls (simple main effect; left channel, F(1, 19) = 27.34, P < 0.001; right channel, F(1, 19) = 22.05, P < 0.001), no changes were found in students with presenteeism during either the WFT (simple main effect; left channel, F(1, 19) = 0.12, P < 0.732; right channel, F(1, 19) = 0.08, P < 0.778) or TMT tasks (left channel, t = −0.94, P with Bonferroni correction = 0.745; right channel, t = −2.19, P with Bon-ferroni correction < 0.113). This is the first study to reveal differences in activity in the cerebral cortex associated with presenteeism. The fact that students with presenteeism have prefrontal dysfunction might reinforce the concept of presenteeism.
    Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science 08/2015; 5(09):339-347. DOI:10.4236/jbbs.2015.59034
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    • "measure are scarce (Nieuwenhuijsen et al., 2014; Lagerveld et al., 2010). To our knowledge none examined the limitations in work functioning in employees with MDD in remission, a phenomenon known as presenteeism (Koopman et al., 2002). Work functioning refers to the capacity of an individual employee to adequately meet work responsibilities (Boezeman et al., 2015; Abma et al., 2012; Lerner et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to (i) assess work functioning in employees returning to work with a major depression in remission, (ii) study the predictors of impaired work functioning. Participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), on long term sick leave (mean 27 weeks) and treated in a specialized mental healthcare setting, were selected from an intervention study sample. They were eligible for this study if they were remitted from their depression and had returned to work for at least 50% of their contract hours at 18 month follow-up. Work functioning was assessed with the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) and the Need For Recovery scale (NFR). Potential predictors of impaired work functioning were demographic characteristics (assessed at baseline), health characteristics (assessed at baseline, six and twelve month follow-up), and personality- and work characteristics (assessed at 18 month follow-up). After their return to work with MDD in remission, employees were on average still impaired in their work functioning. Personality characteristics were the strongest predictor of this impaired work functioning, followed by health and work characteristics. In the final prediction model, only a passive reaction coping style remained as predictor. We used self-report data with respect to work functioning and work characteristics and not an assessment by a supervisor. Personality trait, coping style, and ability to manage the work environment should be addressed in mental health and return-to-work interventions. Subsequent improved work functioning may be beneficial for mental health and may reduce societal costs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2015; 185:180-187. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.07.013 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "En el Perú, los ingresos laborales de las mujeres agredidas son entre 1150 y 1500 nuevos soles menos por año (Díaz & Miranda, 2010) y estos son valores semejantes a los estimados por Vara (2013) donde las mujeres agredidas pierden un ingreso promedio mensual al año de 1323 nuevos soles (Tipo de cambio USD 2.92) Es evidente que la VcM es un problema que trasciende la esfera privada, el cual debe ser considerado como un asunto de interés para las MYPES del Emporio Comercial de Gamarra. A pesar que la literatura referida a los costos de la VcM en las MYPES es aún escasa, se ha llegado a determinar que los costos de la VcM por presentismo son más elevados que por ausentismo (Hemp 2004; Vara, 2013), debido a la disminución del rendimiento o desempeño de las/los trabajadoras/es (Koopman et al., 2002; Hemp, 2004, Ulloa, 2006; Schultz, Chen & Edington 2009); ello se debe a que el/la trabajador/ra se encuentra físicamente presente pero ausente en sus labores; por estar preocupada/o, agotada/o y distraída/o. En efecto, el presentismo hace que disminuya la productividad y la competitividad de las empresas (Ceniceros, 2003; Arteaga et al, 2007; Vara, 2013).Asimismo, origina otros efectos como: accidentes laborales, errores de producción, horas perdidas de trabajo (cero-productividad), retraso en entregas de pedidos y deficiente calidad de atención a la clientela (Ulloa, 2006; Schultz, Chen & Edington, 2009; Vara, 2013). "

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