Myelomeningocele in a child with intrauterine exposure to efavirenz
- SourceAvailable from: Susan Cu-Uvin
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- "EFV is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV . EFV is an FDA pregnancy category D drug based on animal studies and human case reports of fetal neural tube defects    . Thus, preventing pregnancy is critical in HIV-infected women receiving EFV. "
ABSTRACT: Compare the Plan B levonorgestrel (LNG) area under the concentration- time curve (AUC(12)) prior to and with efavirenz (EFV). Design. Prospective, open-label, single-arm, equivalence study. Healthy HIV-negative subjects underwent 12 hr intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling following single dose LNG alone and after 14 days of EFV. Geometric means, Geometric Mean Ratios, and 90% confidence intervals (CI) are reported for PK Parameters. T-tests were utilized. Clinical parameters and liver function tests (LFTs) were assessed. 24 women enrolled and 21 completed the study. With EFV, LNG AUC(12) was reduced 56% (95% CI: 49%, 62%) from 42.9 to 17.8 ng∗hr/mL, and maximum concentration (C(max)) was reduced 41% (95% CI: 33%, 50%) from 8.4 to 4.6 ng/mL. LNG was well tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities. EFV significantly reduced LNG exposures. Higher LNG doses may be required with EFV. These results reinforce the importance of effective contraception in women taking EFV.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 02/2012; 2012:137192. DOI:10.1155/2012/137192
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ABSTRACT: Medical issues faced by HIV-affected couples include transmission risks between partners and between mother and child, as well as the technologies and procedures available to reduce those risks. Assisted reproductive techniques discussed are artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, self-insemination, and timed intercourse. It is important that physicians be aware of reproductive options available to couples affected by HIV and be prepared to engage in nonjudgmental dialogue with patients. This review is the result of a literature search performed to identify useful information to counsel HIV-serodiscordant and HIV-seroconcordant couples facing decisions on reproduction.Topics in HIV medicine: a publication of the International AIDS Society, USA 12(2):61-7.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART) is used in pregnancy to suppress viral load(pVL) before delivery, reducing risk of vertical HIV-transmission. Nelfinavir(NFV) containing HAART has been highly used in pregnancy, but dosages may be inadequate due to the physiologic changes that occur. Given concerns regarding optimal viral suppression in pregnancy, drug toxicity and resistance development, NFV levels need to be evaluated in this population to guide dosing recommendations. METHODS: As part of a prospective cohort study maternal blood was collected at 18-28wks, 32-37wks and at delivery. Times of last medication dose and blood sampling were recorded and drug levels were measured using HPLC MS-MS. NFV concentration-ratios(NFV-CRs) were calculated by dividing individual levels by a time-adjusted population value. Plasma NFV concentrations and NFV-CRs were compared across gestational age and correlated to variables of interest. Rate and maintenance of viral suppression were analyzed in relation to NFV concentrations and CRs. Statistical tests included ANOVA, χ2, linear regression, and Kaplan Meier estimates. RESULTS: 113 samples were collected from 32 subjects. Samples were eliminated if not in steady state (n=20); 93 samples from 32 subjects were analyzed. Mean NFV-CR at 18-28wks (1.1±0.73) and 32-37wks (0.86±0.73) were not significantly different but were both significantly higher by ANOVA (p=0.049) than the mean NFV-CR at delivery (0.44±0.50). CRs were highly variable. Of 49 antepartum samples, 49%(24) had a CR<0.90 (clinically relevant threshold). Four women reached a pVL <50 copies/mL by 34wks but had a detectable pVL at delivery. One woman never reached an undetectable pVL in pregnancy. Minimum and mean NFV-CRs in these 5 women were not significantly different than those who achieved and maintained virologic suppression. Vertical HIV transmission rate was 0%. CONCLUSIONS: There were no HIV transmissions but 16% (5/32) of women were inadequately suppressed at delivery, which is of concern. Factors associated with inadequate suppression and NFV-CRs need to be explored in conjunction with patient/physician reported adherence and viral resistance profiles. Extreme variability in CRs may limit the potential usefulness of random timed drug levels in all pregnant women.