Complement activation induced by purified Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS), outer membrane vesicles, whole bacteria, and an LPS-free mutant.
ABSTRACT Complement activation is closely associated with plasma endotoxin levels in patients with meningococcal infections. This study assessed complement activation induced by purified Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (Nm-LPS), native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs), LPS-depleted outer membrane vesicles (dOMVs), wild-type meningococci, and an LPS-free mutant (lpxA(-)) from the same strain (44/76) in whole blood anticoagulated with the recombinant hirudin analogue. Complement activation products (C1rs-C1 inhibitor complexes, C4d, C3bBbP, and terminal SC5b-9 complex) were measured by double-antibody EIAs. Nm-LPS was a weak complement activator. Complement activation increased with preparations containing nOMVs, dOMVs, and wild-type bacteria at constant LPS concentrations. With the same protein concentration, complement activation induced by nOMVs, dOMVs, and the LPS-free mutant was equal. The massive complement activation observed in patients with fulminant meningococcal septicemia is, presumably, an indirect effect of the massive endotoxemia. Outer membrane proteins may be more potent complement activators than meningococcal LPSs.
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ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115713. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a strict human pathogen that closely interacts with human endothelial cells via type IV pili in vitro. To decipher whether this interaction plays a role in vivo, we set up an experimental model of fulminant meningococcemia in human skin grafted SCID mice using the wild type strain 2C4.3. Human skin and mouse tissues were sampled 24 hours after bacterial challenge for histopathology, immuno-histochemistry and ultrastructural analysis. In all infected mice, Nm targeted the human vasculature, leading to bacterial and blood thrombi, infectious vasculitis and vascular leakage. Mouse vessels, including brain vessels remained unaffected by the infectious and thrombotic process, and a non-piliated Δ pilE derivative of 2C4.3 failed to target human graft vessels and to induce vascular damages. These data demonstrate that N. meningitidis targets human endothelial cells in vivo and that this interaction triggers the vascular damages that characterize purpura fulminans.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor