Article

Adverse perinatal outcomes are significantly higher in severe gestational hypertension than in mild preeclampsia.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0526, USA.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 3.97). 02/2002; 186(1):66-71. DOI: 10.1067/mob.2002.120080
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The current literature emphasizes increased risk of adverse outcomes in the presence of proteinuria and hypertension. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes in women who developed hypertensive disorders with or without proteinuria.
The study design was a secondary analysis of data from women who had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 598) who were enrolled in a multicenter trial of aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia. The women had no history of chronic hypertension or renal disease and were normotensive at study inclusion. The maternal and perinatal outcome variables assessed were preterm delivery at <37 and <35 weeks of gestation, rate of small-for-gestational-age infants, and abruptio placenta. Data were analyzed by using the chi-square test, and women who remained normotensive or who had mild gestational hypertension were considered as a single group because they had similar outcomes.
As compared to mild preeclampsia, women who developed severe gestational hypertension (without proteinuria) had higher rates of both preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation and small-for-gestational-age infants. In addition, when compared to women with mild preeclampsia, for women with severe gestational hypertension, gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower at delivery (P <.003 for both age and birth weight). Moreover, women who developed severe gestational hypertension had higher rates of preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (54.2% vs 17.8%, P =.001) and at <35 weeks of gestation (25.0% vs 8.4%, P =.0161), and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (20.8% vs 6.5%, P =.024) when compared to women who remained normotensive or those who developed mild gestational hypertension. There were no statistically significant differences in perinatal outcomes between the normotensive/mild gestational hypertension and the mild preeclampsia groups. Overall, women who had severe gestational hypertension had increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants than women with mild gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia. In the presence of severe hypertension, proteinuria did not increase the rates of preterm delivery or delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants.
In women who have gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants are present only in those with severe hypertension. In these women, the presence of proteinuria does not influence perinatal outcome.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
131 Views
  • Chronobiology International. 02/2013; 30(1-2).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Supplementing women with antioxidants during pregnancy may reduce oxidative stress and thereby prevent or delay the onset pre-eclampsia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing vitamin C in pregnancy on the incidence of pre-eclampsia, at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 08/2014; 14(1):283. · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia are major contributors to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of gestational hypertension still relies on conventional clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and thresholds of ≥140/90 mm Hg for systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP. However, the correlation between BP level and target organ damage, cardiovascular disease risk, and long-term prognosis is greater for ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) than clinic BP measurement. Accordingly, ABPM has been suggested as the logical approach to overcoming the low sensitivity and specificity of clinic BP measurements in pregnancy. With the use of ABPM, differing predictable BP patterns throughout gestation have been identified for clinically healthy and hypertensive pregnant women. In normotensive pregnancies, BP steadily decreases up to the middle of gestation and then increases up to the day of delivery. In contrast, women who develop gestational hypertension or preeclampsia show stable BP during the first half of pregnancy and a continuous linear BP increase thereafter until delivery. Epidemiologic studies have also consistently reported sex differences in the 24-h patterns of ambulatory BP and heart rate. Typically, men exhibit a lower heart rate and higher BP than women, the differences being larger for SBP than DBP. Additionally, as early as in the first trimester of gestation, statistically significant increased 24-h SBP and DBP means characterize women complicated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancies. However, the normally lower BP in nongravid women as compared with men, additional decrease in BP during the second trimester of gestation in normotensive but not in hypertensive pregnant women, and significant differences in the 24-h BP pattern between healthy and complicated pregnancies at all gestational ages have not been taken into consideration when establishing reference BP thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy. Several studies reported that use of the 24-h BP mean is not a proper test for an individualized early diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy defined on the basis of cuff BP measurements, thus concluding that from such an awkward approach ABPM is not useful in pregnancy. The 24-h BP pattern that characterizes healthy pregnant women at all gestational ages suggests the use for diagnosis of a time-specified reference limit reflecting that mostly predictable BP variability. Once the time-varying threshold, given, for instance, by the upper limit of a tolerance interval, is available, the hyperbaric index (HBI), as a determinant of BP excess, can be calculated as the total area of any given subject's BP above the threshold. This tolerance-hyperbaric test, where diagnosis of gestational hypertension is based on the HBI calculated with reference to a time-specified tolerance limit, has been shown to provide high sensitivity and specificity for the early identification of subsequent hypertension in pregnancy, as well as a valuable approach for prediction of pregnancy outcome. ABPM during gestation, starting preferably at the time of the first obstetric check-up following positive confirmation of pregnancy, provides sensitive endpoints for use in early risk assessment and guide for establishing prophylactic or therapeutic intervention, and should thus be regarded as the required standard for the diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy. (Author correspondence: rhermida@uvigo.es)
    Chronobiology International 02/2013; 30(1-2). · 2.88 Impact Factor