Adverse perinatal outcomes are significantly higher in severe gestational hypertension than in mild preeclampsia.
ABSTRACT The current literature emphasizes increased risk of adverse outcomes in the presence of proteinuria and hypertension. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes in women who developed hypertensive disorders with or without proteinuria.
The study design was a secondary analysis of data from women who had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 598) who were enrolled in a multicenter trial of aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia. The women had no history of chronic hypertension or renal disease and were normotensive at study inclusion. The maternal and perinatal outcome variables assessed were preterm delivery at <37 and <35 weeks of gestation, rate of small-for-gestational-age infants, and abruptio placenta. Data were analyzed by using the chi-square test, and women who remained normotensive or who had mild gestational hypertension were considered as a single group because they had similar outcomes.
As compared to mild preeclampsia, women who developed severe gestational hypertension (without proteinuria) had higher rates of both preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation and small-for-gestational-age infants. In addition, when compared to women with mild preeclampsia, for women with severe gestational hypertension, gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower at delivery (P <.003 for both age and birth weight). Moreover, women who developed severe gestational hypertension had higher rates of preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (54.2% vs 17.8%, P =.001) and at <35 weeks of gestation (25.0% vs 8.4%, P =.0161), and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (20.8% vs 6.5%, P =.024) when compared to women who remained normotensive or those who developed mild gestational hypertension. There were no statistically significant differences in perinatal outcomes between the normotensive/mild gestational hypertension and the mild preeclampsia groups. Overall, women who had severe gestational hypertension had increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants than women with mild gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia. In the presence of severe hypertension, proteinuria did not increase the rates of preterm delivery or delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants.
In women who have gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants are present only in those with severe hypertension. In these women, the presence of proteinuria does not influence perinatal outcome.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the association between maternal vitamin D status at ≤26 weeks' gestation and the risk of preeclampsia by clinical subtype. We conducted a case-cohort study among women enrolled at 12 US sites from 1959 to 1966 in the Collaborative Perinatal Project. In serum collected at ≤26 weeks' gestation (median 20.9 weeks) from 717 women who later developed preeclampsia (560 mild and 157 severe cases) and from 2986 mothers without preeclampsia, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, over 40 years later, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Half of women in the subcohort had 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) >50 nmol/L. Maternal 25(OH)D 50 to 74.9 nmol/L was associated with a reduction in the absolute and relative risk of preeclampsia and mild preeclampsia compared with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L in the crude analysis but not after adjustment for confounders, including race, prepregnancy body mass index, and parity. For severe preeclampsia, 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L was associated with a reduction in three cases per 1000 pregnancies (adjusted risk difference = -0.003 [95% confidence interval = -0.005 to 0.0002]) and a 40% reduction in risk (0.65 [0.43 to 0.98]) compared with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L. Conclusions were unchanged (1) after restricting to women with 25(OH)D measured before 22 weeks' gestation or (2) with formal sensitivity analyses for unmeasured confounding. Maternal vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for severe preeclampsia but not for its mild subtypes. Contemporary cohorts with large numbers of severe preeclampsia cases would be needed to confirm or refute these findings.Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 01/2014; · 5.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between first-trimester dietary factors and biochemical measures and subsequent risk of gestational hypertension. Methods: This pilot study used a prospective design utilizing a convenience sample of nulliparous women enrolled at their first prenatal visit. A total of 57 women completed the study. Participants were divided into 2 groups for data analysis: normotensive pregnancy and gestational hypertension. Results: Nearly one-quarter of study participants (22.8%) developed gestational hypertension, of whom 84.6% had significant proteinuria meeting the criteria for preeclampsia. There were no significant differences in micronutrient or macronutrient dietary intakes between groups. Serum iron and zinc levels were lower for the gestational hypertension group compared with the normotensive pregnancy group (P≤ .01). Low serum zinc levels were related to a risk of developing gestational hypertension (adjusted odds ratio, 0.930; 95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). Discussion: Ensuring adequate intake of zinc and monitoring serum zinc levels in nulliparous pregnant women may help to prevent or contribute to early detection of gestational hypertension.Journal of midwifery & women's health 07/2013; · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES WERE: preterm delivery (OR 5.97, 95% CI: 2.97-12.7) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR 5.17, 95% CI: 2.36-11.3). Predictors of adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia were preterm delivery and severe pre-eclampsia. Health workers need to identify women at risk, offer them counseling and, refer them if necessary to a hospital where they can be managed successfully. This may in turn reduce the neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with pre-eclampsia.The Pan African medical journal. 01/2014; 17(Suppl 1):7.