The current literature emphasizes increased risk of adverse outcomes in the presence of proteinuria and hypertension. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes in women who developed hypertensive disorders with or without proteinuria.
The study design was a secondary analysis of data from women who had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 598) who were enrolled in a multicenter trial of aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia. The women had no history of chronic hypertension or renal disease and were normotensive at study inclusion. The maternal and perinatal outcome variables assessed were preterm delivery at <37 and <35 weeks of gestation, rate of small-for-gestational-age infants, and abruptio placenta. Data were analyzed by using the chi-square test, and women who remained normotensive or who had mild gestational hypertension were considered as a single group because they had similar outcomes.
As compared to mild preeclampsia, women who developed severe gestational hypertension (without proteinuria) had higher rates of both preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation and small-for-gestational-age infants. In addition, when compared to women with mild preeclampsia, for women with severe gestational hypertension, gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower at delivery (P <.003 for both age and birth weight). Moreover, women who developed severe gestational hypertension had higher rates of preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (54.2% vs 17.8%, P =.001) and at <35 weeks of gestation (25.0% vs 8.4%, P =.0161), and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (20.8% vs 6.5%, P =.024) when compared to women who remained normotensive or those who developed mild gestational hypertension. There were no statistically significant differences in perinatal outcomes between the normotensive/mild gestational hypertension and the mild preeclampsia groups. Overall, women who had severe gestational hypertension had increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants than women with mild gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia. In the presence of severe hypertension, proteinuria did not increase the rates of preterm delivery or delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants.
In women who have gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants are present only in those with severe hypertension. In these women, the presence of proteinuria does not influence perinatal outcome.
"Women who were born small for gestational age have an increased risk of developing hypertension during pregnancy, which may lead to giving birth to low birth weight newborns. This leads to an inherited predisposition to low birth weight and to cardiovascular risk . Women with obesity and/or preexisting diabetes mellitus and/or gestational diabetes tend to give birth to children with increased birth weight, increased ponderal index, and increased future risk of obesity and diabetes mellitus in adulthood and also during their future pregnancies . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectives:
Parents' birth weight acts as a predictor for the descendant birth weight, with the correlation more strongly transmitted through maternal line. The present research aims to study the correlation between the child's low or increased birth weight, the mother's birth weight, and maternal conditions.
773 mother-infant binomials were identified with information on both the baby's and the mother's birth weight recorded. Group studies were constituted, dividing the sample according to birth weight (<2,500 grams (g) and ≥3,500 grams (g)). The length at birth was also studied in children ≤47.5 cm (lower quartile). Chi(2) test or Fisher's exact test, Spearman's Rho, and odds ratio were performed in order to investigate the relation between the children's weight and length at birth and the mothers' and children's variables.
The girls were heavier at birth than their mothers, with an average increase at birth weight between the generations of 79 g. The child's birth weight <2,500 g did not show any correlation with maternal birth weight <2,500 g (Fisher 0.264; Spearman's Rho 0.048; OR 2.1 and OR lower 0.7) or with maternal stature below the lower quartile (<157 cm) (Chi (2) sig 0.323; with Spearman's Rho 0.036; OR 1.5 and OR lower 0.7). The child's low birth weight (<2,500 g) was lightly correlated with drug use by the mother during pregnancy (Fisher 0.083; Spearman's Rho 0.080; OR 4.9 and OR lower 1.0). The child's birth weight <2,500 g showed increased correlation with gestational age lower than 38 weeks and 3 days (Chi (2) sig 0.002; Spearman's Rho 0.113; OR 3.2 and OR lower 1.5). The child's weight at birth ≥3,500 g showed strong correlation with maternal weight at birth ≥3,500 g (Chi (2) sig 0; Spearman's Rho +0.142; OR 0.5 and OR upper 0.7). It was also revealed that the higher the maternal prepregnancy BMI, the stronger the correlation with child's birth weight ≥3,500 g ((maternal prepregnancy BMI > 25.0 with Chi (2) sig 0.013; Spearman's Rho 0.09; OR 1.54 and OR upper 2.17) and (maternal prepregnancy BMI > 30.0 with Chi (2) sig 0 Spearman's Rho 0.137; OR 2.58 and OR upper 4.26)). The child's length at birth in the lower quartile (≤47.5 cm) showed strong correlation with drug use by the mother during pregnancy (Chi (2) sig 0.004; Spearman's Rho 0.105; OR 4.3 and OR lower 1.5).
The mother's increased weight at birth and the prenatal overweight or obesity were correlated with increased weight and length at birth of the newborn, coupled with the tendency of increasing birth weight between generations of mothers and daughters. Also, descendants with smaller length at birth are the children of women with the lowest statures.
BioMed Research International 02/2015; 2015:615034. DOI:10.1155/2015/615034 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Pre-eclampsia contributes to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pre-eclampsia contributed to 5.4% perinatal deaths and 24% of intrauterine growth restriction  and is associated with 25.8% of preterm births .Small-for-gestational age babies are associated with health risks later in life like obesity and insulin resistance, which may manifest as hypertension and diabetes . Preterm delivery is associated with neonatal and infant mortality. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Supplementing women with antioxidants during pregnancy may reduce oxidative stress and thereby prevent or delay the onset pre-eclampsia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing vitamin C in pregnancy on the incidence of pre-eclampsia, at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
This was a (parallel, balanced randomization, 1:1) placebo randomized controlled trial conducted at Mulago hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Participants included in this study were pregnant women aged 15-42 years, who lived 15 km or less from the hospital with gestational ages between 12-22 weeks. The women were randomized to take 1000mg of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) or a placebo daily until they delivered. The primary outcome was pre-eclamsia. Secondary outcomes were: severe pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery, low birth weight and still birth delivery. Participants were 932 pregnant women randomized into one of the two treatment arms in a ratio of 1:1. The participants, the care providers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to the study allocation.
Of the 932 women recruited; 466 were randomized to the vitamin and 466 to the placebo group. Recruitment of participants was from November 2011 to June 2012 and follow up was up to January 2013. Outcome data was available 415 women in the vitamin group and 418 women in the placebo group.
There were no differences in vitamin and placebo groups in the incidence of pre-eclampsia (3.1% versus 4.1%; RR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.37-1.56), severe pre-eclampsia (1.2% versus 1.0%; RR 1.25; 95% CI: 0.34-4.65), gestational hypertension(7.7% versus 11.5%; RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.43-1.03), preterm delivery (11.3% versus 12.2%; RR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.63-1.34), low birth weight (11.1% versus 10.3%; RR 1.07; 95% CI: 0.72-1.59) and still birth delivery (4.6% versus 4.5%; RR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.54-1.87).
Supplementation with vitamin C did not reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia nor did it reduce the adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. We do not recommend the use of vitamin C in pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia.
This study was registered at the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, PACTR201210000418271 on 25th October 2012.
"This is similar to what was found by other researchers [12, 30, 31]. Buchibinder and colleagues , in Ohio in the United States reported that the perinatal mortality in women with severe pre-eclampsia was 8.9% and there was a high perinatal morbidity. Jenkins and colleagues  studied maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with severe pre-eclampsia before 25 weeks gestation and observed that only 10% of the neonates survived with major morbidities. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
Pre-eclampsia, which is more prevalent in resource-limited settings, contributes significantly to maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the factors associated with these adverse outcomes are poorly understood in low resource settings. In this paper we examine the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda.
PREDICTORS OF ADVERSE NEONATAL OUTCOMES WERE: preterm delivery (OR 5.97, 95% CI: 2.97-12.7) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR 5.17, 95% CI: 2.36-11.3).
Predictors of adverse neonatal outcomes among women with pre-eclampsia were preterm delivery and severe pre-eclampsia. Health workers need to identify women at risk, offer them counseling and, refer them if necessary to a hospital where they can be managed successfully. This may in turn reduce the neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with pre-eclampsia.
Pan African Medical Journal 01/2014; 17(Suppl 1):7. DOI:10.11694/pamj.supp.2014.17.1.3014
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