Adverse perinatal outcomes are significantly higher in severe gestational hypertension than in mild preeclampsia.
ABSTRACT The current literature emphasizes increased risk of adverse outcomes in the presence of proteinuria and hypertension. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes in women who developed hypertensive disorders with or without proteinuria.
The study design was a secondary analysis of data from women who had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 598) who were enrolled in a multicenter trial of aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia. The women had no history of chronic hypertension or renal disease and were normotensive at study inclusion. The maternal and perinatal outcome variables assessed were preterm delivery at <37 and <35 weeks of gestation, rate of small-for-gestational-age infants, and abruptio placenta. Data were analyzed by using the chi-square test, and women who remained normotensive or who had mild gestational hypertension were considered as a single group because they had similar outcomes.
As compared to mild preeclampsia, women who developed severe gestational hypertension (without proteinuria) had higher rates of both preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation and small-for-gestational-age infants. In addition, when compared to women with mild preeclampsia, for women with severe gestational hypertension, gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower at delivery (P <.003 for both age and birth weight). Moreover, women who developed severe gestational hypertension had higher rates of preterm delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (54.2% vs 17.8%, P =.001) and at <35 weeks of gestation (25.0% vs 8.4%, P =.0161), and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants (20.8% vs 6.5%, P =.024) when compared to women who remained normotensive or those who developed mild gestational hypertension. There were no statistically significant differences in perinatal outcomes between the normotensive/mild gestational hypertension and the mild preeclampsia groups. Overall, women who had severe gestational hypertension had increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants than women with mild gestational hypertension or mild preeclampsia. In the presence of severe hypertension, proteinuria did not increase the rates of preterm delivery or delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants.
In women who have gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, increased rates of preterm delivery and delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants are present only in those with severe hypertension. In these women, the presence of proteinuria does not influence perinatal outcome.
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ABSTRACT: A prospective study of 10,074 white gravidas and 2,880 black gravidas carried out during the years 1959 to 1967 has been analyzed with respect to the impact of elevated blood pressures and/or proteinuria upon pregnancy outcome. Edema was not considered because no evidence is available to indicate that its occurrence increases risk. The mean arterial pressure exhibited during the fifth and sixth months of pregnancy was found to be of significance, as well as the absolute levels of blood pressure attained prior to labor and delivery. The degree of rise in blood pressure was not of importance in itself. However, categories with significant proteinuria had greater increases in mean arterial pressure than did comparable categories without it. Significant proteinuria alone but especially with hypertension was also detrimental to pregnancy outcome. Eight categories incorporating early and late hypertension with and without proteinuria were created, and these were given descriptive diagnostic labels. Only "gestational hypertension," as defined, proved to be essentially devoid of risk to the fetus. In all other non-normotensive categories there was an increase in the stillbirth rate, the perinatal mortality rate, the frequency of intrauterine growth retardation, and neonatal morbidity. In every category, each of these untoward events was greater in black than in white gravidas, and a higher percentage of blacks was noted in each of the hypertensive categories. It is believed that hypertension, significant proteinuria, or both are associated with decreased uteroplacental blood flow which is the common denominator for all of these deleterious effects. The study suggests that "gestational hypertension" occurring late but without proteinuria may or may not represent an early stage of "pre-eclampsia" but does not, at least, place the infant at any substantially increased risk.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/1977; 126(7):821-33. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The appropriate interpretation of monitored fetal growth throughout pregnancy in individual patients and populations is dependent upon the availability of adequate standards. There is no adequate standard of fetal weight throughout pregnancy that is suitable for patients in the U.S.A. To determine such a standard for infants delivered at about sea level the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of fetal weight for each menstrual week of gestation were calculated from 430 fetuses at 8 to 20 menstrual weeks' gestation aborted with prostaglandins and from 30,772 liveborn infants delivered of patients at 21 to 44 menstrual weeks' gestation. Median fetal crown-to-rump lengths and crown-to-heel lengths were derived from measurements of 496 aborted fetuses of 8 to 21 weeks' gestation. Fetal weight correction factors for parity, race (socioeconomic status), and fetal sex were calculated. The derived fetal growth curves are useful for clinical, public health, and investigational purposes.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/1976; 126(5):555-64. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Whether low-dose aspirin prevents preeclampsia is unclear. It is not recommended as prophylaxis in women at low risk for preeclampsia but may reduce the incidence of the disease in women at high risk. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in four groups of pregnant women at high risk for preeclampsia, including 471 women with pregestational insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, 774 women with chronic hypertension, 688 women with multifetal gestations, and 606 women who had had preeclampsia during a previous pregnancy. The women were enrolled between gestational weeks 13 and 26 and received either 60 mg of aspirin or placebo daily. Outcome data were obtained on all but 36 of the 2539 women who entered the study. The incidence of preeclampsia was similar in the 1254 women in the aspirin group and the 1249 women in the placebo group (aspirin, 18 percent; placebo, 20 percent; P=0.23). The incidences in the aspirin and placebo groups for each of the four high-risk categories were also similar: for women with pregestational diabetes mellitus, the incidence was 18 percent in the aspirin group and 22 percent in the placebo group (P=0.38); for women with chronic hypertension, 26 percent and 25 percent (P= 0.66); for those with multifetal gestations, 12 percent and 16 percent (P=0.10); and for those with preeclampsia during a previous pregnancy, 17 percent and 19 percent (P=0.47). In addition, the incidences of perinatal death, preterm birth, and infants small for gestational age were similar in the aspirin and placebo groups. In our study, low-dose aspirin did not reduce the incidence of preeclampsia significantly or improve perinatal outcomes in pregnant women at high risk for preeclampsia.New England Journal of Medicine 04/1998; 338(11):701-5. · 51.66 Impact Factor