Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and vasopressin in magnocellular neurons of salt-loaded aged rats.
ABSTRACT Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is expressed in catecholaminergic neurons. However, under certain conditions it is also ectopically expressed in magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus. To test the hypothesis that this expression of TH is related to the cellular activation of these neurons and/or to the vasopressin (VP) expression, we studied the expression of both TH and VP in control and salt-loaded aged rats. Our results demonstrate that aged rats show a marked TH expression in VP cells which is further increased by osmotic stimulation in the absence of increase in VP synthesis in the supraoptic nucleus. The presence of TH-immunopositive dendritic swellings in the ventral part of this nucleus reveals the high state of plasticity of these neurons. Furthermore, the lack of several actors of catecholamine biosynthesis in these neurons suggests a different role for TH. This study further demonstrates an ectopic expression of TH in hypothalamic neurons of aged rats and a TH expression linked to the activation of VP neurons but unrelated to VP synthesis.
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ABSTRACT: In situ hybridization (ISH) was used to study at the electron microscope level, the subcellular localization of oxytocin (OT) mRNA in the rat hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. Rat brains were fixed with paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde and vibratome slices were incubated with a 25-base synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to OT mRNA and labelled at the 3'-end with [3H]dCTP. Hybridized slices were embedded in Epon after post-fixation with osmium tetroxide and cut into ultrathin sections that were processed for ultrastructural radioautography. OT mRNA was observed in magnocellular neurons of supra-optic and paraventricular nuclei in the vibratome sections. On ultrathin sections, the cytological preservation appeared to be satisfactory. Except for a few silver grains over the nucleus, sometimes close to its membrane, most grains were localized over the cytoplasm of some magnocellular neurons, where they frequently overlapped the endoplasmic reticulum. To decrease exposure time, ISH was also performed with OT probes labelled with a long tritiated tail. In this case, clusters of silver grains occurred over the cell nuclei not only in magnocellular neurons but also in non-secretory neurons and even in glial cells. However, an excess of poly C added to the hybridization buffer strongly decreased this non-cytoplasmic labelling. In conclusion, the results obtained with the short-tailed oligonucleotides demonstrate that these synthetic oligonucleotides have possible applications for the ultrastructural localization of mRNAs and constitute a powerful tool for the dynamic study of cellular mRNA processing in several physiological and experimental conditions.Molecular Brain Research 07/1990; 8(1):37-45. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have studied the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the adult human hypothalamus. Large numbers of these neurons were seen in these hypothalamic nuclei; approximately 40% of all the cells within the SON and PVN were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir). Most of these cells were magnocellular. Their distribution was compared to that of arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) cells. In the SON a greater proportion of magnocellular TH-ir cells was found caudally compared to AVP-ir cells. In the PVN the magnocellular TH-ir cells were larger in mean diameter compared to AVP-ir cells. In double-immunofluorescence experiments some TH-ir cells contained oxytocin immunoreactivity but none contained AVP-ir. In the adult human a large number of PVN and SON magnocellular cells appear to synthesize a catecholamine. A subclass of these neurons also synthesize oxytocin but most cells are distinct from the classically described neurosecretory neurons.Brain Research 10/1988; 461(1):75-86. · 2.88 Impact Factor
Article: Neurobiology of L-DOPAergic systems.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: L-DOPA is proposed to be a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in CNS. It is released probably from neurons, which may contain L-DOPA as an end-product, and/or from some compartment other than catecholamine-containing vesicles. The L-DOPA itself produces presynaptic and postsynaptic responses. All are stereoselective and most are antagonized by competitive antagonist. In striatum, L-DOPA is neuromodulator, mother of catecholamines, not only a precursor for dopamine but also a potentiator of children for presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors to facilitate dopamine release and postsynaptic D2 receptors, and ACh release inhibitor. All may cooperate for Parkinson's disease. Meanwhile, supersensitization of increase in L-glutamate release to nanomolar levodopa was seen in Parkinson's model rats, which may relate to dyskinesia or "on-off" during chronic therapy. In lower brainstem, L-DOPA tonically activates postsynaptic depressor sites of NTS and CVLM and pressor sites of RVLM. L-DOPA is probably a neurotransmitter of primary baroreceptor afferents terminating in NTS. GABA, the inhibitory neuromodulator for baroreflex in NTS, tonically functions to inhibit, via GABAA receptors, L-DOPA release and depressor responses to levodopa. Levodopa inversely releases GABA. L-DOPAergic monosynaptic relay from NTS to CVLM and from PHN to RVLM is suggested. Tonic L-DOPAergic baroreceptor-aortic nerve-NTS-CVLM relay seems to carry baroreflex information. Disturbance of neuronal activity to release L-DOPA in NTS, loss of the activity in CVLM, enhancement of the activity with decreased decarboxylation and increase in sensitivity to levodopa in RVLM may be involved in maintenance of hypertension in SHR. This is a story of "L-DOPAergic receptors" with extremely high affinity and low density.Progress in Neurobiology 09/1996; 49(5):415-54. · 9.04 Impact Factor