Prevalence and prognosis of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, ST segment depression and negative T-wave; the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

Copenhagen City Heart Study, Epidemiological Research Unit, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Bispebjerg, 2400 NV, Denmark.
European Heart Journal (Impact Factor: 14.72). 03/2002; 23(4):315-24. DOI: 10.1053/euhj.2001.2774
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the prevalence and the independent prognosis of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy by voltage only, ST depression and negative T wave, isolated negative T wave and left ventricular hypertrophy plus ST depression and negative T wave for cardiac morbidity and mortality, without known ischaemic heart disease at baseline. METHODS and
Follow-up data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were used. Subjects were 5243 men and 6391 women, age range 25-74 years. End-points were (1) myocardial infarction, (2) ischaemic heart disease and (3) cardiovascular disease mortality. Relative risk was age- and sex-adjusted, and multivariately adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors. During 7 years follow-up, left ventricular hypertrophy plus ST depression and negative T wave had an age-adjusted relative risk of 3.78 (95% confidence interval 2.29-6.25) for myocardial infarction, 4.27 (2.95-6.16) for ischaemic heart disease and 3.75 (2.41-5.85) for cardiovascular disease. A negative T wave, ST depression and negative T wave changes, and left ventricular hypertrophy with negative T wave also carry independent prognostic information for myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease and cardiovascular disease.
Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy with ST depression and negative T wave changes are the electrocardiographic abnormalities with the greatest prognostic information for future cardiac events. Electrocardiographic negative T waves, ST depression and negative T wave abnormalities and left ventricular hypertrophy with negative T waves, also have prognostic information.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Risk prediction in elderly patients is increasingly relevant due to longer life expectancy. Objectives This study sought to examine whether electrocardiographic (ECG) changes provide prognostic information incremental to current risk models and to the conventional risk factors. Methods In all, 6,991 participants from the Copenhagen Heart Study attending an examination at age ≥65 years were included. ECG changes were defined as Q waves, ST-segment depression, T-wave changes, ventricular conduction defects, and left ventricular hypertrophy based on the Minnesota code. The primary endpoint was fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and the secondary was fatal or nonfatal CVD event. In our study, 2,236 fatal CVD and 3,849 fatal or nonfatal CVD events occurred during a median of 11.9 and 9.8 years of follow-up. Results ECG changes were frequently present (30.6%) and associated with conventional risk factors. All ECG changes except 1 univariably predicted both endpoints. Event rates of ECG changes versus no ECG changes were respectively 41.4% versus 27.8% and 64.6% versus 50.8%. When added to existing risk scores, ECG changes independently increased the risk of both endpoints. Fatal CVD events: hazard ratio (HR): 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29 to 1.36; p < 0.001) and fatal or nonfatal CVD events: HR: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.24; p < 0.001). When added to conventional risk factors, continuous net reclassification improvement was 42.3% (95% CI: 42.0 to 42.4; p < 0.001) for fatal and 29.2% (95% CI: 28.4 to 29.2; p < 0.001) for fatal or nonfatal events. Categorical net reclassification was 7.1% (95% CI: 6.7 to 9.0; p < 0.001) for fatal and 4.2% (95% CI: 3.5 to 5.6; p < 0.001) for fatal or nonfatal events. Conclusions Simple assessment of the existence of ECG changes improves risk prediction in the general population of persons age ≥65 years.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2014; 64(9):898–906. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.050 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Multifunction CardioGram (MCG) in detecting the presence of functionally significant coronary ischaemia. This prospective study evaluated the accuracy of the MCG, a new ECG analysis device used to diagnose ischaemic coronary artery disease (CAD). A consecutive 112 participants suspected to have CAD who were scheduled for elective coronary angiography (CAG) from October 2012 to December 2013 were examined. Their predictive values of relevant ischaemia were measured by MCG, standard ECG and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and compared. Five levels of ischaemia based on CAG findings adjusted by fractional flow reserve (FFR) values and three levels of MCG score of high, borderline or low were used. The MCG (OR=2.67 (1.60 to 4.44), p<0.001) was the only test significantly associated with ischaemia level. The FFR values for individual MCG scores with low, borderline and high were 0.77 (0.70 to 0.86), 0.78 (0.71 to 0.82) and 0.69 (0.65 to 0.77), respectively, p=0.042. A high MCG score had a specificity of 90.4% (87.0% to 93.9%) in model 1 adjusted by FFR≤0.8 threshold and of 87.0% (83.2% to 90.8%) in model 2 adjusted by FFR≤0.75 threshold, and a negative predictive value of 82.5% (78.3% to 86.7%) in model 1 and of 83.8% (79.6% to 87.9%) in model 2 for the prediction of severe ischaemia. The MCG showed high specificity with a high negative predictive value, suggesting that the MCG could be used not only to identify functionally significant ischaemia but to reduce unnecessary CAGs. UMIN ID: 000009992.
    08/2014; 1(1):e000144. DOI:10.1136/openhrt-2014-000144

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