To identify positive aspects of caregiving and examine how they are associated with caregiver outcomes.
This study used a national sample of caregivers derived from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (part 2). Two hundred and eighty-nine caregivers caring for seniors living in the community were questioned about their experience of caregiving. Caregivers were asked whether they could identify any positive aspects related to their role, the type of positive aspects and to rate their feelings about caring. Using a conceptual model developed by Noonan and Tennstedt (1997), a staged stepwise multiple regression approach was used factoring the background/contextual variables, stressor variables (3 MS score, ADL limitations), mediator variables (positive aspects of caregiving, number of services used) and outcome variables (depression, burden and self-assessed health measures) into the model.
Two hundred and eleven caregivers (73%) could identify at least one specific positive aspect of caregiving. An additional 20 (6.9%) could identify more than one positive aspect. Positive feelings about caring were associated with lower CES-D scores ( p<0.001), lower burden scores ( p<0.001) and better self assessed health ( p<0.001).
Clinicians should inquire about the positive aspects of caregiving if they are to fully comprehend the caregiver experience and identify risk factors for negative caregiver outcomes.
"Furthermore, carers may undergo great burden, physical and psychological problems, and even increased risk of mortality     . However, carers may also experience positive feelings as a result of the care they provide   . Despite the relevance of these costs and effects, economic evaluations of health care interventions usually ignore them , which is equivalent to view informal care as a costless resource . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To elicit willingness-to-accept (WTA) values for informal care based on the preferences of informal carers and noncarers.
Two surveys were conducted with a sample of carers (n = 202) and a sample of noncarers (n = 200). Individuals in both groups were asked three questions in which they had to state the minimum monetary compensation they would require (WTA) if they had to look after a person described in a hypothetical scenario for one extra hour per day. Furthermore, carers were asked for the compensation they would demand if they had to be in charge of their actual care recipient for one extra hour per day.
No significant differences were found between the distributions of carers' and noncarers' WTA values. Overall, respondents' valuations were sensitive to and consistent with their preferences over the tasks to be carried out in the extra hour of informal care. On average, carers required a lower monetary compensation for one extra hour taking care of their loved one (mean/median WTA values €5.2/€4.5) than if they had to devote that time to look after the hypothetical care recipient (mean/median WTA values €6.4/€5.5). More than half of the carers stated the same value under the two caring situations, which suggests that carers' WTA values were influenced by their own experience providing informal care.
Our results show that it is feasible to derive a monetary valuation for informal care from the preferences of noncarers.
Value in Health 06/2015; 18(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2015.05.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor
"In one study, nearly 75% of caregivers of PWD could identify at least one caregiving benefit, including companionship, fulfillment, and enjoyment (Cohen, Colantonio, & Vernich, 2002). Further, caregivers reporting satisfaction with their role and greater benefit from caregiving also reported greater life satisfaction (Haley, Lamonde, Han, Burton, & Schowetter, 2003) and were less likely to experience depression, burden or poor health (Cohen et al., 2002). "
"Potential benefits from care-giving through improved quality of the relationship with the care recipient, role satisfaction and feelings of accomplishment (Carbonneau et al. 2010) may contribute to health improvement in non-working male high caregivers. Care-giving satisfaction has been associated with health and well-being crosssectionally (Cohen et al. 2002), but the evidence for gender differences is limited (Del-Pino-Casado et al. 2012). There is more evidence to support differential negative impacts. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Informal carers represent a substantial proportion of the population in many countries and health is an important factor in their capacity to continue care-giving. This study investigated the impact of care-giving on the mental and physical health of informal carers, taking account of contextual factors, including family and work. We examined health changes from before care-giving commenced to 2 and 4 years after, using longitudinal data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. The sample comprised 424 carers and 424 propensity score-matched non-carers. Health was self-assessed, measured with the SF-36 Health Survey Mental Health (MH) and Physical Functioning (PF) scales. Care-giving was classified as non-carer, low (<5 hours/week), moderate (5–19 hours/week) and high (20 or more hours/week). PF and MH change scores were regressed on baseline scores, care-giving, covariates (including work, family and socio-demographic characteristics) and interactions to identify impacts for subgroups. The physical and mental health impacts differed by gender, and care-giving hours and carer work hours were important contextual factors. Deterioration in both PF and MH was worse for females after 2 years and deterioration in MH was worse for males after 4 years. Among carers aged 40–64 years, there was a 17-point decline in PF (P = 0.009) and a 14-point decline in MH (P < 0.0001) after 2 years for female high caregivers working full-time and 9.3 point improvement (P = 0.02) for non-working male high caregivers. Change was not significant for non-carers. The study found that not all carers suffer adverse health impacts; however, the combination of high levels of care-giving with workforce participation can increase the risk of negative physical and mental health effects (particularly in female carers). Working carers providing high levels of care represent a vulnerable subgroup where supportive and preventive services might be focused.
Health & Social Care in the Community 08/2014; 22(6). DOI:10.1111/hsc.12136 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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