Can psychiatric liaison reduce neuroleptic use and reduce health service utilization for dementia patients residing in care facilities
ABSTRACT The quality of care and overuse of neuroleptic medication in care environments are major issues in the care of elderly people with dementia.
The quality of care (Dementia Care Mapping), the severity of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms (BPSD--Neuropsychiatric Inventory), expressive language skills (Sheffield Acquired Language Disorder scale), service utilization and use of neuroleptic drugs was compared over 9 months between six care facilities receiving a psychiatric liaison service and three facilities receiving the usual clinical support, using a single blind design.
There was a significant reduction in neuroleptic usage in the facilities receiving the liaison service (McNemar test p<0.0001), but not amongst those receiving standard clinical support (McNemar test p=0.07). There were also significantly less GP contacts (t=3.9 p=0.0001) for residents in the facilities receiving the liaison service, and a three fold reduction in psychiatric in-patient bed usage (Bed days per person 0.6 vs. 1.5). Residents in care facilities receiving the liaison service experienced significantly less deterioration in expressive language skills (t=2.2 p=0.03), but there were no significant differences in BPSD or wellbeing.
A resource efficient psychiatric liaison service can reduce neuroleptic drug use and reduce some aspects of health service utilization; but a more extensive intervention is probably required to improve the overall quality of care.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Elderly patients occupy up to 65% of acute hospital beds and a significant proportion of them present with a comorbid psychiatric condition such as depression, delirium or dementia. Liaison old age psychiatry (LOAP) services have been developed to provide psychiatric consultation in medical and surgical settings, improving at the same time the knowledge and expertise of general ward staff. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical characteristics across different psychiatric disorders among elderly patients in medical wards. Method A prospective observational study was developed between October 2011 and January 2013, which involved 107 subjects aged 65 years or older that were hospitalised in the Department of Internal Medicine and referred to the LOAP service. Psychiatric diagnostic was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Results Delirium (40.6%), depression (22.4%) and dementia (20.4%) were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. Patients with delirium were significantly older, had more severe psychiatric symptomatology (mean CGI = 5.35) and presented infectious processes as acute medical conditions more frequently than the other patients. Conclusion Psychiatric disturbances occurring in elderly inpatients in medical wards are highly prevalent and complex. A LOAP service may play an important role in effectively reducing the overutilisation and consumption of health resources through early recognition of these conditions, effective management and prevention of adverse outcomes, and effective communication with out-patient clinics, community mental health teams and day-care centres.Mental Health in Family Medicine 09/2013; 10(3):153-8.
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ABSTRACT: Background Antipsychotic medications are commonly used to manage the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Several large studies have demonstrated an association between treatment with antipsychotics and increased morbidity and mortality in people with dementia. Aims To assess the effectiveness of interventions used to reduce inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotics to the elderly with dementia in residential care. Method Systematic searches were conducted in 12 electronic databases. Reference lists of all included studies and forward citation searching using Web of Science were also conducted. All quantitative studies with a comparative research design and studies in which recognized methods of qualitative data collection were used were included. Articles were screened for inclusion independently by 2 reviewers. Data extraction and quality appraisal were performed by 1 reviewer and checked by a second with discrepancies resolved by discussion with a third if necessary. Results Twenty-two quantitative studies (reported in 23 articles) were included evaluating the effectiveness of educational programs (n = 11), in-reach services (n = 2), medication review (n = 4), and multicomponent interventions (n = 5). No qualitative studies meeting our inclusion criteria were identified. Eleven studies were randomized or controlled in design; the remainder were uncontrolled before and after studies. Beneficial effects were seen in 9 of the 11 studies with the most robust study design with reductions in antipsychotic prescribing levels of between 12% and 20%. Little empirical information was provided on the sustainability of interventions. Conclusion Interventions to reduce inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotic medications to people with dementia resident in care homes may be effective in the short term, but longer more robust studies are needed. For prescribing levels to be reduced in the long term, the culture and nature of care settings and the availability and feasibility of nondrug alternatives needs to be addressed.Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 10/2014; 15(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2014.06.012 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dementia-care mapping (DCM) is a cyclic intervention aiming at reducing neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with dementia in nursing homes. Alongside an 18-month cluster-randomized controlled trial in which we studied the effectiveness of DCM on residents and staff outcomes, we investigated differences in costs of care between DCM and usual care in nursing homes. Dementia special care units were randomly assigned to DCM or usual care. Nurses from the intervention care homes received DCM training, a DCM organizational briefing day and conducted the 4-months DCM-intervention twice during the study. A single DCM cycle consists of observation, feedback to the staff, and action plans for the residents. We measured costs related to health care consumption, falls and psychotropic drug use at the resident level and absenteeism at the staff level. Data were extracted from resident files and the nursing home records. Prizes were determined using the Dutch manual of health care cost and the cost prices delivered by a pharmacy and a nursing home. Total costs were evaluated by means of linear mixed-effect models for longitudinal data, with the unit as a random effect to correct for dependencies within units. 34 units from 11 nursing homes, including 318 residents and 376 nursing staff members participated in the cost analyses. Analyses showed no difference in total costs. However certain changes within costs could be noticed. The intervention group showed lower costs associated with outpatient hospital appointments over time (p = 0(.)05) than the control group. In both groups, the number of falls, costs associated with the elderly-care physician and nurse practitioner increased equally during the study (p<0(.)02). DCM is a cost-neutral intervention. It effectively reduces outpatient hospital appointments compared to usual care. Other considerations than costs, such as nursing homes' preferences, may determine whether they adopt the DCM method. Dutch Trials Registry NTR2314.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86662. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086662 · 3.53 Impact Factor