Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for older adults: a review.
ABSTRACT This review evaluates the effectiveness of physical activity interventions among older adults.
Computerized searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. Studies were included if: (1) the study population consisted of older adults (average sample population age of > or =50 years and minimum age of 40 years); (2) the intervention consisted of an exercise program or was aimed at promoting physical activity; and (3) reported on participation (i.e., adherence/compliance) or changes in level of physical activity (e.g., pre-post test measures and group comparisons).
The 38 studies included 57 physical activity interventions. Three types of interventions were identified: home-based, group-based, and educational. In the short-term, both home-based interventions and group-based interventions achieved high rates of participation (means of 90% and 84%, respectively). Participation declined the longer the duration of the intervention. Participation in education interventions varied widely (range of 35% to 96%). Both group-based interventions and education interventions were effective in increasing physical activity levels in the short-term. Information on long-term effectiveness was either absent or showed no difference of physical activity level between the study groups.
Home-based, group-based, and educational physical activity interventions can result in increased physical activity, but changes are small and short-lived. Participation rates of home-based and group-based interventions were comparable, and both seemed to be unrelated to type or frequency of physical activity. The beneficial effect of behavioral reinforcement strategies was not evident. Comparative studies evaluating the effectiveness of diverse interventions are needed to identify the interventions most likely to succeed in the initiation and maintenance of physical activity.
SourceAvailable from: Joseph F X DeSouza[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurorehabilitation programs are commonly employed with the goal to help restore functionality in patients. However, many of these therapies report only having a small impact. In response to the need for more effective and innovative approaches, rehabilitative methods that take advantage of the neuroplastic properties of the brain have been used to aid with both physical and cognitive impairments. Following this path of reasoning, there has been a particular interest in the use of physical exercise as well as musical related activities. Although such therapies demonstrate potential, they also have limitations that may affect their use, calling for further exploration. Here, we propose dance as a potential parallel to physical and music therapies. Dance may be able to aid with both physical and cognitive impairments, particularly due to it combined nature of including both physical and cognitive stimulation. Not only does it incorporate physical and motor skill related activities, but it can also engage various cognitive functions such as perception, emotion, and memory, all while done in an enriched environment. Other more practical benefits, such as promoting adherence due to being enjoyable, are also discussed, along with the current literature on the application of dance as an intervention tool, as well as future directions required to evaluate the potential of dance as an alternative therapy in neurorehabilitation.Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:1478. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01478 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Few studies have examined how levels of activity intensity fluctuate throughout later life in older adults and no study has identified correlates of sustained activity levels in this age group. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate stability of activity over a 10-year period and identify potential correlates of sustained activity levels in older adults. Design: Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participant-reported physical activity data were collected in 2002 (baseline), 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Participant age, sex, smoking, depressive symptoms, work status, wealth, and long-standing illness were recorded at baseline. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline exposure variables and persistent physical activity (reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week at all 6 assessments over the 10-year time period). Results: A total of 5022 participants (mean age 61 years; 2114 male) were included in the analyses. There was reasonable stability in the physical activity measure over the 6 time points (Cronbach’s α 0.85). There was an overall trend for increasing levels of inactivity and a reduction in vigorous activity. Age, female sex, having ever smoked, long-standing illness, arthritis, obesity, and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of being persistently active (defined as reporting moderate and/or vigorous physical activity at least once a week over all 6 assessment points). Those with greater wealth were 4 times more likely to be persistently active. Conclusions: In the present analyses time spent in vigorous-intensity activity declined in later life. A range of sociodemographic and biomedical factors were associated with being persistently active in older adults.BMJ Open 04/2015; 5(4). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007423 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The increase in life expectancy has led to an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and multiple drug use in elderly population. Given the role of regular physical activity in reducing the risk of a number of diseases, this study aimed to determine the amount of physical activity and its relationship to medicine use among the older people in Amirkola, Babol, Iran. Methods: This study is the part of the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP). Information on physical activity was collected using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and through interviews with older people. The score of this questionnaire was rated from 0 to 400 points. Data about the number and kind of drugs were obtained through interviews and observation of their medications and prescriptions. Then data was analyzed. Results: Among 1616 elderly people, 883 cases were male (54.6%) and 733 were female (45.4%). The average amount of physical activity in the elderly in Amirkola was 99.01±52.53, which was 100.5±66.3 in men and 111.5±55.1 in women (p<0.001). Average number of drugs used by elderly population was 1.9±2.4 in men and 3.3±2.7 in women (p<0.001). There was an inverse and significant correlation between total physical activity and drug use (p=0.003, r=-0.075), and the most correlation was with household physical activity (p<0.001, r =-0.098). Conclusion: These results indicate lower level of physical activity in older people in Amirkola and also showed that an increase in physical activity can reduce the number of medicines in the elderly. Keywords: Older people, Physical activity, Medicine use.