This review evaluates the effectiveness of physical activity interventions among older adults.
Computerized searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. Studies were included if: (1) the study population consisted of older adults (average sample population age of > or =50 years and minimum age of 40 years); (2) the intervention consisted of an exercise program or was aimed at promoting physical activity; and (3) reported on participation (i.e., adherence/compliance) or changes in level of physical activity (e.g., pre-post test measures and group comparisons).
The 38 studies included 57 physical activity interventions. Three types of interventions were identified: home-based, group-based, and educational. In the short-term, both home-based interventions and group-based interventions achieved high rates of participation (means of 90% and 84%, respectively). Participation declined the longer the duration of the intervention. Participation in education interventions varied widely (range of 35% to 96%). Both group-based interventions and education interventions were effective in increasing physical activity levels in the short-term. Information on long-term effectiveness was either absent or showed no difference of physical activity level between the study groups.
Home-based, group-based, and educational physical activity interventions can result in increased physical activity, but changes are small and short-lived. Participation rates of home-based and group-based interventions were comparable, and both seemed to be unrelated to type or frequency of physical activity. The beneficial effect of behavioral reinforcement strategies was not evident. Comparative studies evaluating the effectiveness of diverse interventions are needed to identify the interventions most likely to succeed in the initiation and maintenance of physical activity.
"Although the pain management program, which includes physical activity, has been shown to have health benefits and improve pain management among older adults , studies have found educational interventions to be effective among older adults only over the short term . People who participated in these interventional programs often fell back into their old habits of inactivity after completing the program . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Chronic pain is common among the older population. A literature review on pain management program showed that exercise, yoga, massage therapy, Tai Chi, and music therapy could significantly reduce pain. In spite of the proven benefits of pain management programs, these intervention programs were effective only in the short term, and older adults would resume their old habits. It has been suggested that interventions comprising some type of social support have great potential to increase the participation of older adults. Therefore, we propose the inclusion of peer volunteers in an integrated pain management program to relieve pain among frail older adults. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of an integrated pain management program supplemented with peer volunteers in improving pain intensity, functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, and the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods among frail older adults with chronic pain.
We intend to recruit 30 nursing home residents and 30 peer volunteers from the Institute of Active Ageing in Hong Kong in a group trial for an 8-week group-based integrated pain management program. There will be 16 sessions, with two 1-hour sessions each week.The primary outcome will be pain levels, while secondary outcomes will be assessed according to functional mobility, physical activity, loneliness levels, happiness levels, the use of non-pharmacological pain-relieving methods, and through a questionnaire for volunteers.
In view of the high prevalence of chronic pain among older adults and its adverse impacts, it is important to provide older adults with tools to control their pain. We propose the use of peer volunteers to enhance the effects of an integrated pain management program. It is expected that pain can be reduced and improvements can be achieved among older adults in the areas of physical activity, functional mobility, loneliness levels, happiness levels, and the use of non-pharmacological pain relieving methods. Using these results, we will assess the need to conduct a larger study with a randomized controlled design.
This trial was registered on 24 February 2014 at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the trial number: ACTRN12614000195651.
"A number of health promotion strategies have been employed to increase the population's physical activity levels, including group and home-based physical activity programs  . Yet few studies have directly compared group and home-based physical activity interventions, particularly over the longer term  . Fewer studies have investigated the role the physiotherapist plays in physical activity promotion  and no studies appear to directly target individuals not interested in group exer- cise. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Program method, program deliverer and participant preference may be important factors in increasing physical activity adherence and program effectiveness. To investigate this, we compared two physical activity interventions in middle-aged adults. Methods: Using a pragmatic quasi-experimental design, sedentary community dwelling 50 - 65 year olds (n = 2105) were recruited to a non-randomized 6-month community group exercise program (n = 93) or a physiotherapist-led home-based physical activity program (n = 65). The primary outcome was physical activity adherence derived from exercise diaries. Secondary outcomes included the Active Australia Survey, aerobic capacity (step- test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index. Results: Home-based participants were more likely to be younger, working full-time and not in a relationship (p < 0.05). Thirty-three percent of the group participants attended ≥ 70% of group exercise sessions. Ninety percent of home-based partici-pants received ≥ 4 of the planned 6 telephone support calls. Intention-to-treat analysis found adherence to the physical activity sessions prescribed was the same for both interventions (26% ± 28% vs. 28% ± 35%). Both interventions significantly increased the number of participants achieving self-reported “sufficient” physical activity (p ≤ 0.001) and significantly decreased waist circumference (p < 0.001) and WHR (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The physiotherapist- led home-based physical activity program, requiring few resources, appears to have increased the adoption of physical activity and adherence to physical activity program requirements for sedentary middle-aged adults. The home-based program, providing equivalent health benefits to the group exercise program, may be particularly suitable for those not interested in or unable to attend a group exercise program. Clinical Trial Registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ACTRN126 1000890932.
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine 01/2013; 3(02):229-237. DOI:10.4236/ojpm.2013.32031
"The information presented in the graphs can be used with a coaching tool for older adults. Social and behavioural interventions have been found to successfully improve physical health of older adults (Drewnowski and Evans, 2001; King, 2001; van der Bij et al., 2002). Notifications can suggest improvements, provide educational resources, or provide encouragement that are supported through visual displays of wellness. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Informatics tools can help support the health and independence of older adults. In this paper, we present an approach towards integrating health-monitoring data and describe several techniques for the assessment and visualisation of integrated health and well-being of older adults. We present three different visualisation techniques to provide distinct alternatives towards display of the same information, focusing on reducing the cognitive load of data interpretation. We demonstrate the feasibility of integrating health-monitoring information into a comprehensive measure of wellness, while also highlighting the challenges of designing visual displays targeted at multiple user groups. These visual displays of wellness can be incorporated into personal health records and can be an effective support for informed decision-making.
International Journal of Electronic Healthcare 10/2012; 7(2):89-104. DOI:10.1504/IJEH.2012.049872
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