Increase in dopamine turnover occurs early in Parkinson's disease: evidence from a new modeling approach to PET 18 F-fluorodopa data.
ABSTRACT An increase in dopamine turnover has been hypothesized to occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD) as a compensatory mechanism for dopaminergic neuronal loss. A new approach to the determination of dopamine turnover was developed using 4-hour-long 18 F-fluorodopa (FD) positron emission tomography (PET) data. An effective dopamine turnover, an estimate of dopamine turnover, has been measured using its inverse, the effective dopamine distribution volume (EDV). This new method is based on a reversible tracer approach and determines the EDV using a graphical method. Six healthy subjects and 10 subjects with very early PD underwent a 4-hour-long FD scan. The EDV and the plasma uptake rate constant K(i), a marker of dopamine synthesis and storage, were compared according to their ability to separate the PD group from the healthy group. The EDV was the better discriminator (93.8% correct classification versus 81.3% for K(i)). Effective dopamine distribution volume decreased by 65% in the PD group relative to the healthy group, whereas the decrease in K(i) was 39%. These results show that changes in EDV are measurable with PET earlier than changes in the dopamine synthesis and storage rate, indicating that EDV is a sensitive marker for early PD and that a dopamine turnover increase likely serves as an early compensatory mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Subtle cognitive and behavioral changes are common in early Parkinson's disease. The cause of these symptoms is probably multifactorial but may in part be related to extra-striatal dopamine levels. 6-[(18) F]-Fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography has been widely used to quantify dopamine metabolism in the brain; the most frequently measured kinetic parameter is the tissue uptake rate constant, Ki. However, estimates of dopamine turnover, which also account for the small rate of FDOPA loss from areas of specific trapping, may be more sensitive than Ki for early disease-related changes in dopamine biosynthesis. The purpose of the present study was to compare effective distribution volume ratio (eDVR), a metric for dopamine turnover, to cognitive and behavioral measures in Parkinson's patients. We chose to focus the investigation on anterior cingulate cortex, which shows highest FDOPA uptake within frontal regions and has known roles in executive function. Fifteen non-demented early-stage PD patients were pretreated with carbidopa and tolcapone, a central catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor, and then underwent extended imaging with FDOPA PET. Anterior cingulate eDVR was compared with composite scores for language, memory, and executive function measured by neuropsychological testing, and behavior change measured using two informant-based questionnaires, the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version. Lower mean eDVR (thus higher dopamine turnover) in anterior cingulate cortex was related to lower (more impaired) behavior scores. We conclude that subtle changes in anterior cingulate dopamine metabolism may contribute to dysexecutive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.Brain Imaging and Behavior 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11682-014-9338-4 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of functional imaging in neurodegenerative diseases has increased in recent years, with applications in research into the underlying pathophysiology, aiding in diagnosis, or evaluating new treatments. In Parkinson's disease (PD), these imaging methods have expanded our understanding of the disease beyond dopaminergic deficits. Moreover, functional imaging methods have described alterations in functional networks relating not only to the motor symptoms, but also to many nonmotor features of PD, such as cognitive dysfunction. From a clinical viewpoint, functional imaging methods can assist in monitoring disease progression, such as in the context of clinical trials, and holds the potential to aid in early diagnosis of PD and differentiation from other parkinsonian disorders.Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 05/2012; 2(5):a009274. DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a009274 · 7.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson's disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects-108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson's disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86 ± 0.09 (SEM), 1.00 ± 0.09, 1.32 ± 0.12 nmol/l] than controls (2.15 ± 0.18 nmol/l; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P = 0.0002). Dihydroxyphenylglycol was also lower in the three synucleinopathies (8.82 ± 0.44, 7.75 ± 0.42, 5.82 ± 0.65 nmol/l) than controls (11.0 ± 0.62 nmol/l; P = 0.009, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was lower and dihydroxyphenylglycol higher in Parkinson's disease than in pure autonomic failure. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was 100% sensitive at 89% specificity in separating patients with recent onset of parkinsonism from controls but was of no value in differentiating Parkinson's disease from multiple system atrophy. Synucleinopathies feature cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson's disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid seems to provide a sensitive means to identify even early Parkinson's disease.Brain 03/2012; 135(Pt 6):1900-13. DOI:10.1093/brain/aws055 · 10.23 Impact Factor