Occurrence of extraarticular disease manifestations is associated with excess mortality in a community based cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis
ABSTRACT To investigate the occurrence of extraarticular manifestations (ExRA) in a well defined community based cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to examine their effect on mortality.
Using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a retrospective medical record review was conducted of a cohort of 424 cases of RA in Olmsted County, MN, USA, diagnosed during the period 1955-1985. These cases had been classified using the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria for RA. Patients were followed 1955-1998 (median followup 14.8 yrs; range 0.2-42.8 yrs), and incident ExRA manifestations were recorded according to predefined criteria. Data on comorbidities were extracted using the definitions of the Charlson comorbidity index. Survival was compared to the general population using Kaplan-Meier estimates.
ExRA occurred in 169 patients, corresponding to an incidence rate of 3.67/100 person-yrs. Compared to the general population, survival among patients with RA was decreased. Survival among patients with ExRA was markedly decreased compared to the general population and to patients without ExRA (p < 0.001). A particularly poor prognosis was noted in a subgroup of 63 patients (incidence rate 1.04/100 person-yrs) who fulfilled predefined criteria for severe ExRA (i.e., vasculitis, pericarditis, pleuritis, and/or Felty's syndrome). For RA patients who did not fulfill these criteria, there was no significant increase of mortality (p = 0.09). In a multivariate model of mortality, including age, sex, and the presence of known comorbidities, the presence of one or more of these ExRA was the strongest predictor of mortality.
In this first community based study of extraarticular manifestations in RA, virtually all the excess mortality occurred in a subgroup of patients with severe extraarticular disease, suggesting that extraarticular disease is the major predictor of mortality in patients with RA.
- SourceAvailable from: Arnulfo Hernan Nava-Zavala[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We evaluated the association between anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies (anti-MCV) with the presence of extra-articular (ExRA) manifestations in 225 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Ninety-five patients had ExRA and 130 had no ExRA. There was no association of anti-CCP and anti-MCV levels with the presence of ExRA as total group (P = 0.40 and P = 0.91, resp.). Making an analysis of individual manifestations, rheumatoid nodules were associated with positivity for rheumatoid factor (RF); (P = 0.01), anti-CCP (P = 0.048), and anti-MCV (P = 0.02). Instead, RF, anti-CCP, or anti-MCV were not associated with SS, chronic anemia, or peripheral neuropathy. Levels of anti-CCP correlated with the score of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-Di) (r = 0.154, P = 0.03), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); (r = 0.155, P = 0.03), and RF (P = 0.254, P < 0.001), whereas anti-MCV titres only correlated with RF (r = 0.169, P = 0.02). On adjusted analysis, ExRA was associated with longer age (P = 0.015), longer disease duration (P = 0.007), higher DAS-28 score (P = 0.002), and higher HAQ-DI score (P = 0.007), but serum levels of anti-CCP and anti-MCV were not associated. These findings show the need to strengthen the evaluation of the pathogenic mechanisms implied in each specific ExRA manifestation.Journal of Immunology Research 04/2014; 2014:536050. DOI:10.1155/2014/536050 · 2.93 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The clinical benefits of statins are strongly related to their low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering properties. However, considering that the pharmacological target of statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, is one of the upstream enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, its inhibition may determine a substantial impoverishment of additional lipid moieties required for a proper cellular function. From this hypothesis, several experimental and clinical evidence have been reported indicating additional effects of statins beyond the LDL-C lowering, in particular anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus statin therapy, indicated for hyperlipidemic patients for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) have begun to be considered effective in other diseases not necessarily linked to altered lipid profile. In the present review we summarized the current clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety profile of statins in a variety of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, venous thromboembolism, liver diseases, polycystic ovary syndrome, and age-related macular degeneration. As discussed in the review, pending large, well designed, randomized trials, it is reasonable to conclude that there is no definitive evidence for the use of statins in the aforementioned diseases.Pharmacological Research 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.02.003 · 3.98 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease. Physiotherapy interventions for people with RA are predominantly targeted at ameliorating disability resulting from articular and peri-articular manifestations of the disease and providing advice and education to improve functional capacity and quality of life. To ensure safe and effective care, it is critical that physiotherapists are able to identify potentially serious articular and peri-articular manifestations of RA, such as instability of the cervical spine. Additionally, as primary contact professionals, it is essential that physiotherapists are aware of the potentially serious extra-articular manifestations of RA. This paper provides an overview of the practice-relevant manifestations associated with RA that might warrant further investigation by a medical practitioner (red flags), their relevance to physiotherapy practice, and recommended management pathways.Manual therapy 02/2013; 18(6). DOI:10.1016/j.math.2013.01.006 · 1.76 Impact Factor