Biphasic oxidation of mitochondrial NAD(P)H.
ABSTRACT The redox state of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides is known to be important for structural integrity of mitochondria. In this work, we observed a biphasic oxidation of endogenous NAD(P)H in rat liver mitochondria induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Nearly 85% of mitochondrial NAD(P)H was rapidly oxidized during the first phase. The second phase of NAD(P)H oxidation was retarded for several minutes, appearing after the inner membrane potential collapse and mitochondria swelling. It was characterized by disturbance of ATP synthesis and dramatic permeabilization of the inner membrane to pyridine nucleotides. The second phase was completely prevented by 0.5 microM cyclosporin A or 0.2 mM EGTA or was significantly delayed by 25 microM butylhydroxytoluene or trifluoperazine. The obtained data suggest that the second phase resulted from oxidation of the remaining NADH via the outer membrane electron transport system of permeabilized mitochondria, leading to further oxidation of the remaining NADPH in a transhydrogenase reaction.
- SourceAvailable from: Guido Kroemer[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Scientific revolution  implies a transformation of the world view in which a dominant paradigm is substituted by a new one, one which furnishes an ameliorated comprehension of facts, as well as an advantage for the design of informative experiments. Apoptosis research has recently experienced a change from a paradigm in which the nucleus determined the apoptotic process to a paradigm in which mitochondria constitute the center of death control. Several pieces of evidence imply mitochondria in the process of apoptosis. Kinetic data indicate that mitochondria undergo major changes in membrane integrity before classical signs of apoptosis become manifest. These changes concern both the inner and the outer mitochondrial membranes, leading to a disruption of the inner transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim) and the release of intermembrane proteins through the outer membrane. Cell-free systems of apoptosis demonstrate that mitochondrial products are rate limiting for the activation of caspases and endonucleases in cell extracts. Functional studies indicate that drug-enforced opening or closing of the mitochondrial megachannel (also called permeability transition pore) can induce or prevent apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic oncoprotein Bcl-2 acts on mitochondria to stabilize membrane integrity and to prevent opening of the megachannel. These observations are compatible with a three-step model of apoptosis: a premitochondrial phase during which signal transduction cascades or damage pathways are activated; a mitochondrial phase, during which mitochondrial membrane function is lost; and a post-mitochondrial phase, during which proteins released from mitochondria cause the activation of catabolic proteases and nucleases. The implication of mitochondria in apoptosis has important consequences for the understanding of the normal physiology of apoptosis, its deregulation in cancer and degenerative diseases, and the development of novel cytotoxic and cytoprotective drugs.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/1998; 1366(1-2):151-65. · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both physiological cell death (apoptosis) and, in some cases, accidental cell death (necrosis) involve a two-step process. At a first level, numerous physiological and some pathological stimuli trigger an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability. The mitochondria release apoptogenic factors through the outer membrane and dissipate the electrochemical gradient of the inner membrane. Mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) involves a dynamic multiprotein complex formed in the contact site between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The PT complex can function as a sensor for stress and damage, as well as for certain signals connected to receptors. Inhibition of PT by pharmacological intervention on mitochondrial structures or mitochondrial expression of the apoptosis-inhibitory oncoprotein Bcl-2 prevents cell death, suggesting that PT is a rate-limiting event of the death process. At a second level, the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction (collapse of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, uncoupling of the respiratory chain, hyperproduction of superoxide anions, disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis, outflow of matrix calcium and glutathione, and release of soluble intermembrane proteins) entails a bioenergetic catastrophe culminating in the disruption of plasma membrane integrity (necrosis) and/or the activation of specific apoptogenic proteases (caspases) by mitochondrial proteins that leak into the cytosol (cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor) with secondary endonuclease activation (apoptosis). The relative rate of these two processes (bioenergetic catastrophe versus protease and endonuclease activation) determines whether a cell will undergo primary necrosis or apoptosis. The acquisition of the biochemical and ultrastructural features of apoptosis critically relies on the liberation of apoptogenic proteases or protease activators from mitochondria. The fact that mitochondrial events control cell death has major implications for the development of cytoprotective and cytotoxic drugs.Annual Review of Physiology 02/1998; 60:619-42. · 19.55 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using confocal microscopy, onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in individual mitochondria within living cells can be visualized by the redistribution of the cytosolic fluorophore, calcein, into mitochondria. Simultaneously, mitochondria release membrane potential-indicating fluorophores like tetramethylrhodamine methylester. The MPT occurs in several forms of necrotic cell death, including oxidative stress, pH-dependent ischemia/reperfusion injury and Ca2+ ionophore toxicity. Cyclosporin A (CsA) and trifluoperazine block the MPT in these models and prevent cell killing, showing that the MPT is a causative factor in necrotic cell death. During oxidative injury induced by t-butylhydroperoxide, onset of the MPT is preceded by pyridine nucleotide oxidation, mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species, and an increase of mitochondrial free Ca2+, all changes that promote the MPT. During tissue ischemia, acidosis develops. Because of acidotic pH, anoxic cell death is substantially delayed. However, when pH is restored to normal after reperfusion (reoxygenation at pH 7.4), cell death occurs rapidly (pH paradox). This killing is caused by pH-dependent onset of the MPT, which is blocked by reperfusion at acidotic pH or with CsA. In isolated mitochondria, toxicants causing Reye’s syndrome, such as salicylate and valproate, induce the MPT. Similarly, salicylate induces a CsA-sensitive MPT and killing of cultured hepatocytes. These in vitro findings suggest that the MPT is the pathophysiological mechanism underlying Reye’s syndrome in vivo. Kroemer and coworkers proposed that the MPT is a critical event in the progression of apoptotic cell death. Using confocal microscopy, the MPT can be directly documented during tumor necrosis factor-α induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. CsA blocks this MPT and prevents apoptosis. The MPT does not occur uniformly during apoptosis. Initially, a small proportion of mitochondria undergo the MPT, which increases to nearly 100% over 1–3 h. A technique based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer can selectively reveal mitochondrial depolarization. After nutrient deprivation, a small fraction of mitochondria spontaneously depolarize and enter an acidic lysosomal compartment, suggesting that the MPT precedes the normal process of mitochondrial autophagy. A model is proposed in which onset of the MPT to increasing numbers of mitochondria within a cell leads progressively to autophagy, apoptosis and necrotic cell death.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/1998; · 4.66 Impact Factor