[Comparative antibacterial activity of carbapenems against P. aeruginosa (1)].
ABSTRACT Comparative antibacterial activity of imipenem (IPM), panipenem (PAPM), meropenem (MEPM) and biapenem (BIPM) was determined against 288 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from various hospitals in 2000. The order of activity by comparison of MIC50/MIC80/MIC90 was: MEPM (1/4/8 micrograms/ml) > BIPM (1/4/16 micrograms/ml) > IPM (2/4/16 micrograms/ml) > PAPM (8/16/32 micrograms/ml). Moreover, the order of activity against 75 strains of P. aeruginosa (MIC of CAZ, AZT was > or = 16 micrograms/ml and MIC of IPM, MEPM was < or = 8 micrograms/ml) by comparison of MIC50/MIC80/MIC90 was: BIPM (1/2/8 micrograms/ml) > or = MEPM (1/4/8 micrograms/ml) > or = IPM (2/2/8 micrograms/ml) > PAPM (8/16/16 micrograms/ml). Judging from both correlation between the MICs of carbapenems and relationship between class C beta-lactamase activity and drug susceptibility of carbapenems, it becomes apparent that carbapenems, especially BIPM and MEPM will be useful for treatment of antipseudomonal cephem resistant pseudomonas infection.
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ABSTRACT: CS-023 (RO4908463, formerly R-115685) is a novel 1beta-methylcarbapenem with 5-substituted pyrrolidin-3-ylthio groups, including an amidine moiety at the C-2 position. Its antibacterial activity was tested against 1,214 clinical isolates of 32 species and was compared with those of imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, amikacin, and levofloxacin. CS-023 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CS-023 showed the most potent activity among the compounds tested against P. aeruginosa and MRSA, with MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited of 4 microg/ml and 8 microg/ml, respectively. CS-023 was stable against hydrolysis by the beta-lactamases from Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. CS-023 also showed potent activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. The in vivo efficacy of CS-023 was evaluated with a murine systemic infection model induced by 13 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens and a lung infection model induced by 2 strains of PRSP (serotypes 6 and 19). Against the systemic infections with PRSP, MRSA, and P. aeruginosa and the lung infections, the efficacy of CS-023 was comparable to those of imipenem/cilastatin and vancomycin (tested against lung infections only) and superior to those of meropenem, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime (tested against P. aeruginosa infections only). These results suggest that CS-023 has potential for the treatment of nosocomial bacterial infections by gram-positive and -negative pathogens, including MRSA and P. aeruginosa.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2005; 49(8):3239-50. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The maternal ancestry of Gérold, Count of Geneva, from the penultimate 'Rudolfinger' King of Burgundy has long been known. The identity of his father has, however, remained elusive. In a recent book, it is suggested that Gérold is descended in the male line from the counts of Dagsburg-Egisheim in Alsace. Moreover, this author proposes that the traditional parentage given for Hildegard, great-grandmother of the Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, is wrong. This note does little more than draw attention to these important conclusions, in the hope that readers will either challenge or endorse them.01/2003;
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ABSTRACT: The susceptibility of 3233 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated primarily in 2001, as agents of infection at 37 medical institutes with various specialties in seven regions of Japan (ranging from Hokkaido to Kyushu/Okinawa), to 18 antipseudomonal agents known to be active against P. aeruginosa was evaluated, in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. Of the 18 antipseudomonal agents, including some combinations of beta-lactamase inhibitors and antibacterial agents, ciprofloxacin had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)(50) (0.25 microg/ml) against P. aeruginosa, followed by meropenem, with an MIC(50) of 0.5 microg/ml. The MIC(50) of 7 of the examined antibacterial agents (ceftazidime, cefozopran, imipenem, biapenem, gentamicin, tobramycin, and levofloxacin) was between 1 and 2 microg/ml. Among the antipseudomonal agents tested, tobramycin showed the lowest MIC(90) (2 microg/ml), which was not significantly different from its MIC(50) (1 microg/ml). The MIC(90) of the other antibacterial agents examined ranged from 8 to 64 microg/ml and more. The susceptibility of the 3233 strains to the 12 antibacterial agents covered by the NCCLS guidelines was determined according to the standard method of the NCCLS guidelines. The frequency of strains resistant to meropenem, gentamicin, or tobramycin was relatively low (7.5%-8.3%). The frequency of strains showing intermediate to severe resistance to tobramycin was particularly low (8.0%). The frequency of strains resistant to aztreonam, imipenem, or levofloxacin was 16.7%-19.0%, about twice as high as the frequency of strains resistant to tobramycin. The susceptibility pattern of the 3233 strains (isolated from seven regions of Japan) to five antibacterial agents (ceftazidime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin) was evaluated in relation to the regions from which they were isolated. The MIC(50) values of these antibacterial agents did not differ significantly among the regions. However, the MIC(90) values of ceftazidime and gentamicin were higher for strains isolated from the Kansai region than for strains isolated from other regions. The MIC(90) of ciprofloxacin was higher for strains isolated from the Tohoku, Kansai, and Kyushu/Okinawa regions than for strains isolated from other regions. Of the 3233 strains, 89 were classified as multiple-drug-resistant (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin) strains. Of these 89 strains, 42 were isolated from urine, 17 from sputum or pharyngeal mucus, 13 from pus, 8 from blood, 1 from cerebrospinal fluid, and 8 from other specimens. The frequency of multiple-drug-resistant strains was higher among strains isolated from the Tohoku and Kansai regions than in strains isolated from other regions.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2005; 11(2):64-70. · 1.55 Impact Factor