[Comparative antibacterial activity of carbapenems against P. aeruginosa (1)].
ABSTRACT Comparative antibacterial activity of imipenem (IPM), panipenem (PAPM), meropenem (MEPM) and biapenem (BIPM) was determined against 288 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa collected from various hospitals in 2000. The order of activity by comparison of MIC50/MIC80/MIC90 was: MEPM (1/4/8 micrograms/ml) > BIPM (1/4/16 micrograms/ml) > IPM (2/4/16 micrograms/ml) > PAPM (8/16/32 micrograms/ml). Moreover, the order of activity against 75 strains of P. aeruginosa (MIC of CAZ, AZT was > or = 16 micrograms/ml and MIC of IPM, MEPM was < or = 8 micrograms/ml) by comparison of MIC50/MIC80/MIC90 was: BIPM (1/2/8 micrograms/ml) > or = MEPM (1/4/8 micrograms/ml) > or = IPM (2/2/8 micrograms/ml) > PAPM (8/16/16 micrograms/ml). Judging from both correlation between the MICs of carbapenems and relationship between class C beta-lactamase activity and drug susceptibility of carbapenems, it becomes apparent that carbapenems, especially BIPM and MEPM will be useful for treatment of antipseudomonal cephem resistant pseudomonas infection.
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ABSTRACT: The maternal ancestry of Gérold, Count of Geneva, from the penultimate 'Rudolfinger' King of Burgundy has long been known. The identity of his father has, however, remained elusive. In a recent book, it is suggested that Gérold is descended in the male line from the counts of Dagsburg-Egisheim in Alsace. Moreover, this author proposes that the traditional parentage given for Hildegard, great-grandmother of the Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, is wrong. This note does little more than draw attention to these important conclusions, in the hope that readers will either challenge or endorse them.
Article: Biapenem[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biapenem is a new parenteral carbapenem antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of in vitro antibacterial activity encompassing many Gram-negative and Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including species producing beta-lactamases. Biapenem is more stable than imipenem, meropenem and panipenem to hydrolysis by human renal dihydropeptidase-I (DHP-I), and therefore does not require the coadministration of a DHP-I inhibitor. After intravenous administration, biapenem is widely distributed and penetrates well into various tissues (e.g. lung tissue) and body fluids (e.g. sputum, pleural effusion, abdominal cavity fluid). In randomised, nonblind or double-blind clinical trials, biapenem showed good clinical and bacteriological efficacy (similar to that of imipenem/ cilastatin) in the treatment of adult patients with intra-abdominal infections, lower respiratory infections or complicated urinary tract infections. Biapenem is generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events in clinical trials were skin eruptions/rashes, nausea and diarrhoea.Drugs 02/2002; 62(15):2221-34; discussion 2235. DOI:10.2165/00003495-200262150-00005 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The susceptibility of 3233 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isolated primarily in 2001, as agents of infection at 37 medical institutes with various specialties in seven regions of Japan (ranging from Hokkaido to Kyushu/Okinawa), to 18 antipseudomonal agents known to be active against P. aeruginosa was evaluated, in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. Of the 18 antipseudomonal agents, including some combinations of beta-lactamase inhibitors and antibacterial agents, ciprofloxacin had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)(50) (0.25 microg/ml) against P. aeruginosa, followed by meropenem, with an MIC(50) of 0.5 microg/ml. The MIC(50) of 7 of the examined antibacterial agents (ceftazidime, cefozopran, imipenem, biapenem, gentamicin, tobramycin, and levofloxacin) was between 1 and 2 microg/ml. Among the antipseudomonal agents tested, tobramycin showed the lowest MIC(90) (2 microg/ml), which was not significantly different from its MIC(50) (1 microg/ml). The MIC(90) of the other antibacterial agents examined ranged from 8 to 64 microg/ml and more. The susceptibility of the 3233 strains to the 12 antibacterial agents covered by the NCCLS guidelines was determined according to the standard method of the NCCLS guidelines. The frequency of strains resistant to meropenem, gentamicin, or tobramycin was relatively low (7.5%-8.3%). The frequency of strains showing intermediate to severe resistance to tobramycin was particularly low (8.0%). The frequency of strains resistant to aztreonam, imipenem, or levofloxacin was 16.7%-19.0%, about twice as high as the frequency of strains resistant to tobramycin. The susceptibility pattern of the 3233 strains (isolated from seven regions of Japan) to five antibacterial agents (ceftazidime, piperacillin, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin) was evaluated in relation to the regions from which they were isolated. The MIC(50) values of these antibacterial agents did not differ significantly among the regions. However, the MIC(90) values of ceftazidime and gentamicin were higher for strains isolated from the Kansai region than for strains isolated from other regions. The MIC(90) of ciprofloxacin was higher for strains isolated from the Tohoku, Kansai, and Kyushu/Okinawa regions than for strains isolated from other regions. Of the 3233 strains, 89 were classified as multiple-drug-resistant (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin) strains. Of these 89 strains, 42 were isolated from urine, 17 from sputum or pharyngeal mucus, 13 from pus, 8 from blood, 1 from cerebrospinal fluid, and 8 from other specimens. The frequency of multiple-drug-resistant strains was higher among strains isolated from the Tohoku and Kansai regions than in strains isolated from other regions.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2005; 11(2):64-70. DOI:10.1007/s10156-005-0377-z · 1.38 Impact Factor