Self-controlled dorsal penile nerve stimulation to inhibit bladder hyperreflexia in incomplete spinal cord injury: a case report.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Wonju Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 2.36). 03/2002; 83(2):273-7. DOI: 10.1053/apmr.2002.28817
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intermittent catheterization is not always successful in achieving continence in spinal cord injury (SCI) and often requires adjunctive methods. Electric stimulation of sacral afferent nerves reduces hyperactivity of the bladder. This report describes application of self-controlled dorsal penile nerve stimulation for bladder hyperreflexia in incomplete SCI. The patient was a 33-year-old man with C6 incomplete quadriplegia who managed his bladder with intermittent self-catheterization and medication. Despite this, he continued to have reflex bladder contractions that he could feel but could not catheterize himself in time to prevent incontinence. We performed cystometry with dorsal penile nerve stimulation and analyzed data of home use of stimulation. During cystometry, the suppressive effect of electric stimulation on hyperreflexic contractions was reliable and reproducible. The patient could start stimulation on sensing bladder contraction, and the suppression of reflex contraction lasted several minutes after stopping brief stimulation. When using stimulation at home, the rate of leakage between catheterization decreased, and catheterized volume increased significantly.

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    ABSTRACT: Elektrische stimulatie van de nervus dorsalis penis of clitoridis (NDPC) onderdrukt ongewenste detrusorcontracties (ODC’s) en kan worden gebruikt ter behandeling van detrusoroveractiviteit en ter preventie van incontinentie. Oppervlakte-elektroden zijn niet geschikt voor gebruik in het dagelijks leven vanwege onder andere fixatie- en hygiëneproblemen. In deze pilotstudy werd onderzocht: 1) de haalbaarheid van het inbrengen van een elektrode bij de NDPC en 2) de effectiviteit van conditionele stimulatie met verschillende stroomsterktes om ODC’s bij dwarslaesiepatiënten te onderdrukken.
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may have neurogenic detrusor contractions at low volumes (bladder hyperreflexia), which cause incontinence and can lead to significant health problems. Bladder contractions can be suppressed by electrical stimulation of inhibitory pathways but continuous activation may lead to habituation of the inhibitory reflex and loss of continence. We determined whether conditional stimulation with electrical stimulation of inhibitory pathways applied only at the onset of nascent bladder contractions allows the bladder to fill to a greater volume before continence is lost compared with continuous stimulation. In 6 alpha-chloralose anesthetized cats cystometry was performed to compare the volume at which continence was lost under the conditions of no stimulation, continuous stimulation and conditional electrical stimulation of inhibitory pathways. PNT ENG was used to detect the onset of bladder contractions and it served as the input to an event triggered control system that regulated conditional stimulation to maintain continence. Conditional stimulation controlled by PNT ENG increased bladder capacity by 36% over no stimulation and by 15% over continuous stimulation (p <0.001 and 0.027, respectively). The event triggered control system decreased stimulation time by 67% compared to continuous stimulation. Conditional electrical stimulation of inhibitory pathways is more effective than continuous stimulation. A control system triggered by PNT ENG can maintain urinary continence.
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    ABSTRACT: Conditional stimulation of dorsal genital nerves suppresses undesired detrusor contractions (UDC) and consequently increases bladder capacity and prevents incontinence. No clinically applicable sensor exists for reliable bladder activity monitoring as a trigger for conditional stimulation. Primary objective of this study was to determine whether bladder sensation concomitant with UDC may be used for spinal cord injury (SCI) patients to trigger neurostimulation in daily life. Nineteen male and 7 female SCI patients suspected of detrusor overactivity (DO) underwent conventional and 6-hr ambulatory urodynamics. Patients were instructed to do normal daily activities and to activate event buttons of the ambulatory recorder to mark events: physical activity, bladder sensation, micturition or intermittent catheterization, and urinary incontinence. Detection rate was defined as the number of recorded bladder sensation divided by the total number of recorded UDC during ambulatory urodynamics. Bladder sensation was reported by 73% of patients in daily life. Only 41% of patients had analyzable bladder sensation concomitant with UDC during ambulatory urodynamics. For ambulatory and conventional urodynamics, mean detection rates were 23% and 72%, respectively, with mean recording delays of 57 and 16 sec after UDC onset, respectively. Bladder sensation only occurs in a small group of SCI patients combined with a rather low detection rate and long reaction time. Therefore, bladder sensation as a trigger for conditional stimulation does not seem to be suitable for SCI patients with DO. Reliable techniques for chronic bladder activity monitoring are a prerequisite for successful clinical application of conditional stimulation.
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