Article

Impact of the number of lymph nodes retrieved on outcome in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer

Departments of Urology (Genitourinary Oncology Service), Medicine and Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 04/2002; 167(3):1295-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65284-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We postulate that the number of lymph nodes examined in cystectomy specimens can have an impact on the outcome of patients with bladder cancer.
We analyzed data on 322 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. We evaluated the associations of the number of lymph nodes identified by the pathologist in the surgical specimen with the local recurrence rate and survival outcome.
Patients were divided into groups by lymph node status and the distribution of the number of lymph nodes examined. In stages pN0 and pN+ cases improved survival was associated with a greater number of lymph nodes examined. We determined that at least 9 lymph nodes should be studied to define lymph node status accurately.
These results indicate that surgical resection and pathological assessment of an adequate number of lymph nodes in cystectomy specimens increases the likelihood of proper staging and impacts patient outcome. Such information is important not only for the therapy and prognosis of individuals, but also for identifying those who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

0 Followers
 · 
76 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction Lymph node dissection during radical cystectomy or nephroureterectomy confers improved prognosis and eventually therapeutic advantage. The aim of this update is to clarify the anatomical limits of the lymph node dissection, imaging related techniques, possible difficulties related to pathological analysis, its prognostic value and adjuvant treatments. Method A literature review was performed using PubMed database with a combination of the following keywords: “urothelial carcinoma”, “lymph node excision”, “imaging”, “pathology analysis”, “prognosis”, “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy”. Results Regarding bladder tumours, extended lymph node dissection is usually performed up to the division of the iliac vessels and the crossing of the ureters. The CT scan is the recommended imaging technique for lymph node staging but its sensitivity is low. Pathological examination should include perivesicle lymph nodes analysis and report the number of normal and metastatic lymph nodes separately. The prognosis is correlated to the total number of lymph nodes removed and to the extent of the excision. The lymph node density (number of metastatic nodes/normal nodes) is the most important prognosis factor. Adjuvant chemotherapy has not demonstrated a clear advantage. Its most efficient modality is a combination including cisplatin. For upper urinary tract tumours, lymph node dissection may have an impact on survival but definitive conclusion is limited by the lack of surgical technique and indications standardisation. Conclusion Extended lymph node dissection improves survival of bladder cancer and prognosis assessment that could eventually be used to stratify patient requiring adjuvant treatment (level of evidence 3). Improvement on survival was also suggested for upper urinary tract tumors (level of evidence 4).
    Progrès en Urologie 06/2012; 22(7):380–387. DOI:10.1016/j.purol.2012.02.002 · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lymph node dissection during radical cystectomy or nephroureterectomy confers improved prognosis and eventually therapeutic advantage. The aim of this update is to clarify the anatomical limits of the lymph node dissection, imaging related techniques, possible difficulties related to pathological analysis, its prognostic value and adjuvant treatments. A literature review was performed using PubMed database with a combination of the following keywords: "urothelial carcinoma", "lymph node excision", "imaging", "pathology analysis", "prognosis", "chemotherapy" and "radiotherapy". Regarding bladder tumours, extended lymph node dissection is usually performed up to the division of the iliac vessels and the crossing of the ureters. The CT scan is the recommended imaging technique for lymph node staging but its sensitivity is low. Pathological examination should include perivesicle lymph nodes analysis and report the number of normal and metastatic lymph nodes separately. The prognosis is correlated to the total number of lymph nodes removed and to the extent of the excision. The lymph node density (number of metastatic nodes/normal nodes) is the most important prognosis factor. Adjuvant chemotherapy has not demonstrated a clear advantage. Its most efficient modality is a combination including cisplatin. For upper urinary tract tumours, lymph node dissection may have an impact on survival but definitive conclusion is limited by the lack of surgical technique and indications standardisation. Extended lymph node dissection improves survival of bladder cancer and prognosis assessment that could eventually be used to stratify patient requiring adjuvant treatment (level of evidence 3). Improvement on survival was also suggested for upper urinary tract tumors (level of evidence 4).
    Progrès en Urologie 06/2012; 22(7):380-7. · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The standard surgical treatment of invasive bladder cancer is the radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). Up to one-third of patients with invasive bladder cancer have lymph node metastasis. Thus, PLND has important therapeutic and prognostic benefits. The number of lymph nodes that should be removed and the extent of the PLND are still a controversial issue. Recently, the trend of PLND increased toward more extended PLND. Several prognostic factors related to PLND were reported in the literature. In this paper, we will discuss the different PLND templates, number of lymph nodes that should be resected, lymph node density, lymphovascular invasion, tumor burden, extracapsular extension, and the aggregate lymph node metastasis diameter.
    Advances in Urology 08/2011; 2011:701481. DOI:10.1155/2011/701481