Impact of the number of lymph nodes retrieved on outcome in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer
ABSTRACT We postulate that the number of lymph nodes examined in cystectomy specimens can have an impact on the outcome of patients with bladder cancer.
We analyzed data on 322 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. We evaluated the associations of the number of lymph nodes identified by the pathologist in the surgical specimen with the local recurrence rate and survival outcome.
Patients were divided into groups by lymph node status and the distribution of the number of lymph nodes examined. In stages pN0 and pN+ cases improved survival was associated with a greater number of lymph nodes examined. We determined that at least 9 lymph nodes should be studied to define lymph node status accurately.
These results indicate that surgical resection and pathological assessment of an adequate number of lymph nodes in cystectomy specimens increases the likelihood of proper staging and impacts patient outcome. Such information is important not only for the therapy and prognosis of individuals, but also for identifying those who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, minimally invasive techniques such as purely robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) have been suggested as a new surgical approach to muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In this article we review the review the intra- and perioperative results as well as the short- and intermediate-term oncologic results of RARC.Materials and methodsBased on the work recently presented at the European Society of Oncological Urology's 2011 meeting, we reviewed the available literature on RARC. A PubMed literature search was conducted in March 2011 to review English-language articles published from 2000 onward on RARC.ResultsThe literature supports that lymph node yield, learning curve, and intermediate-term oncologic outcomes related to RARC are not different from open surgery. Several articles described the advantages of robotic approach in terms of estimated blood loss, hospital stay, and perioperative outcomes. Operative time remains significantly longer than in the open procedure. A low rate of positive surgical margins may be achieved with RARC, comparable with the open approach. Intracorporeal urinary diversion is likely to represent the future direction for RARC, even if it requires great technical expertise. Due to the relatively recent introduction of the robotic approach in the bladder cancer arena, long-term oncologic data are not yet available.ConclusionsRARC represents a safe and viable treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, there is an urgent need for large, prospective, randomised trials that will establish the potential advantages and limitation of RARC compared with the open approach.European Urology Supplements 05/2011; 10(3):e12-e16. DOI:10.1016/j.eursup.2011.04.002 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare long-term cancer outcomes after radical cystectomy (RC) alone or RC with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) according to different age and comorbidities categories. Using the SEER-Medicare dataset, 3314 patients diagnosed with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder and treated with RC alone or RC with PLND were identified. After propensity score matching to reduce potential selection bias, all cause mortality (ACM)-free and cancer specific mortality (CSM)-free survival rates were estimated. Multivariable regression models (MVA) addressed the effect of PLND on ACM and CSM. Subgroups analyses according to age and comorbidities were performed. After matching, 688 and 688 patients treated with RC alone or RC with PLND remained. The 5-year ACM-free survival rate was 36 after RC alone and 45% after RC with PLND (p < 0001). In MVA, PLND exerted a protective effect on ACM (HR 0.77, p < 0.001). The 5-year CSM-free survival rate was 54 after RC alone and 65% after RC with PLND (p < 0.001). In MVA, PLND exerted a protective effect on CSM (HR 0.71, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in younger (age ≤75) and healthier (CCI = 0) patients, where PLND exerted a protective effect on ACM (HR 0.64, p = 0.001) and CSM (HR 0.65, p = 0.01). Conversely, in older (age >75) and sicker (CCI ≥1) patients, PLND was not associated with ACM (HR 0.98, p = 0.8) or CSM (HR 1.01, p = 0.9). RC with PLND is associated with improved all cause and cancer specific survival in younger and healthier RC candidates but not in older and sicker patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.European Journal of Surgical Oncology 11/2014; 41(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2014.10.061 · 2.89 Impact Factor