Augmented adrenergic vasoconstriction in hypertensive diabetic obese Zucker rats.

Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.01). 04/2002; 282(3):H816-20. DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00695.2001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined skeletal muscle microvessel reactivity to constrictor stimuli in obese (OZR) versus lean Zucker rats (LZR). Gracilis arteries from both rat groups were isolated, cannulated with glass micropipettes, and viewed via television microscopy. Changes in vessel diameter were measured with a video micrometer. Arterial constriction to norepinephrine was elevated in OZR versus LZR, although vasoconstrictor reactivity to endothelin and angiotensin II was unaltered. Differences in reactivity between vessels of LZR and OZR were not explained by the loss of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Reactivity of in situ cremasteric arterioles of OZR to norepinephrine was elevated versus LZR. Treatment with prazosin increased the diameter of in vivo gracilis arteries of OZR to levels determined in LZR and also normalized blood pressure in OZR. These results suggest that the constrictor reactivity of skeletal muscle microvessels in OZR is heightened in response to alpha-adrenergic stimuli and that development of diabetes in OZR may be associated with impaired skeletal muscle perfusion and hypertension due to microvessel hyperreactivity in response to sympathetic stimulation.

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    Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 03/2013; DOI:10.1111/micc.12056 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) used in this study has shown beneficial activities against dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertension. Our aim was to investigate the effects of a diet supplemented with RBEE in vascular impairment developed in obese Zucker rats and to evaluate the main mechanisms mediating this action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Obese Zucker rats were fed a 1% and 5% RBEE-supplemented diet (O1% and O5%). Obese and their lean littermates fed a standard diet were used as controls (OC and LC, respectively). Vascular function was evaluated in aortic rings in organ baths. The role of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated by using NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Aortic expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits and superoxide production in arterial wall were determined. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular hyperreactivity to phenylephrine in obese rats were ameliorated by RBEE treatment, particularly with 1% RBEE. Up-regulation of eNOS protein expression in RBEE-treated aortas should contribute to this activity. RBEE attenuated vascular inflammation by reducing aortic iNOS and TNF-α expression. Aortas from RBEE-treated groups showed a significant decrease of superoxide production and down-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunits. CONCLUSION: RBEE treatment restored endothelial function and vascular contractility in obese Zucker rats through a reduction of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress. These results show the nutraceutical potential of RBEE to prevent obesity-related vascular complications.
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