Augmented adrenergic vasoconstriction in hypertensive diabetic obese Zucker rats.
ABSTRACT This study examined skeletal muscle microvessel reactivity to constrictor stimuli in obese (OZR) versus lean Zucker rats (LZR). Gracilis arteries from both rat groups were isolated, cannulated with glass micropipettes, and viewed via television microscopy. Changes in vessel diameter were measured with a video micrometer. Arterial constriction to norepinephrine was elevated in OZR versus LZR, although vasoconstrictor reactivity to endothelin and angiotensin II was unaltered. Differences in reactivity between vessels of LZR and OZR were not explained by the loss of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Reactivity of in situ cremasteric arterioles of OZR to norepinephrine was elevated versus LZR. Treatment with prazosin increased the diameter of in vivo gracilis arteries of OZR to levels determined in LZR and also normalized blood pressure in OZR. These results suggest that the constrictor reactivity of skeletal muscle microvessels in OZR is heightened in response to alpha-adrenergic stimuli and that development of diabetes in OZR may be associated with impaired skeletal muscle perfusion and hypertension due to microvessel hyperreactivity in response to sympathetic stimulation.
Article: Vascular function in the metabolic syndrome and the effects on skeletal muscle perfusion: lessons from the obese Zucker rat.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The increased prevalence of obesity in Western society has been well established for many years, and with this trend, the prevalence of other associated pathologies including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and the genesis of a proinflammatory and prothrombotic environment within individuals is also rapidly increasing, resulting in a condition known as the~metabolic syndrome. From a physiological perspective, one of the most severe consequences of the metabolic syndrome is a progressive inability of the cardiovascular system to adequately perfuse tissues and organs during either elevated metabolic demand and, if sufficiently severe, under basal levels of demand. For the study of the metabolic syndrome, the OZR (obese Zucker rat) represents an important tool in this effort, as the metabolic syndrome in these animals results from a chronic hyperphagia, and thus can be an excellent representation of the human condition. As in afflicted humans, OZR experience an attenuated functional and reactive hyperaemia, and can ultimately experience an ischaemic condition in their skeletal muscles at rest. The source of this progressive ischaemia appears to lie at multiple sites, as endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses are strongly impaired in OZR, and specific constrictor processes (e.g. adrenergic tone) may be enhanced. Whilst these active processes may contribute to a reduction in blood flow under resting conditions or with mild elevations in metabolic demand, an evolving structural alteration to individual microvessels (reduced distensibility) and microvascular networks (reduced microvessel density) also develop and may act to constrain perfusion at higher levels of metabolic demand. Given that constrained muscle perfusion in the metabolic syndrome appears to reflect a highly integrated, multi-faceted effect in OZR, and probably in humans as well, therapeutic interventions must be designed to address each of these contributing elements.Essays in Biochemistry 02/2006; 42:145-61. · 3.71 Impact Factor
Article: Rosiglitazone reverses endothelial dysfunction but not remodeling of femoral artery in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherogenesis and clinical complications in type 2 diabetes. The vascular dysfunction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats was evaluated at different ages along with the effect of treatment with rosiglitazone (Rosi) on endothelial function and mechanical remodeling. The Rosi treatment was given to ZDF rats for 3 weeks. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation and alpha-adrenoceptor-dependent vasoconstriction of femoral arteries were studied using an ex-vivo isovolumic myograph. The biomechanical passive property of the arteries was studied in Ca2+-free condition. The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), alpha-adrenoceptor, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and elastase were evaluated. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of the femoral artery was blunted at low doses in ZDF rats at 11 weeks of age and attenuated at all doses in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. The expression of eNOS was consistent with the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The alpha-adrenoceptor was activated and the mechanical elastic modulus was increased in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. The expressions of alpha-adrenoceptor, MMP9, and elastase were up regulated in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. Rosi treatment for 3 weeks restored endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and the expression of eNOS and the adrenoceptor activation at the doses below 10-6 mole/L in ZDF rats at 19 weeks of age. Rosi treatment for 3 weeks did not, however, improve the mechanical properties of blood vessel, the expressions of alpha-adrenoceptor, MMP9, and elastase in ZDF rats. The endothelial dysfunction and mechanical remodeling are observed as early as 19 weeks of age in ZDF rat. Rosi treatment for 3 weeks improves endothelial function but not mechanical properties.Cardiovascular Diabetology 01/2010; 9:19. · 3.35 Impact Factor
Article: Obesity induced by neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate impairs microvascular reactivity in adult rats: role of NO and prostanoids.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: given that obesity is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases we decided to investigate the mechanisms involved in microvascular dysfunction using a monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced model of obesity, which allows us to work on both normotensive and normoglycemic conditions. Male offspring of Wistar rats received MSG from the second to the sixth day after birth. Sixteen-week-old MSG rats displayed higher Lee index, fat accumulation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with no alteration in glycemia and blood pressure. The effect of norepinephrine (NE), which was increased in MSG rats, was potentiated by L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or tetraethylammonium (TEA) and was reversed by indomethacin and NS-398. Sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh), which was reduced in MSG rats, was further impaired by L-NAME or TEA, and was corrected by indomethacin, NS-398 and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). MSG rats displayed increased endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. A reduced prostacyclin/tromboxane ratio was found in the mesenteric beds of MSG rats. Mesenteric arterioles of MSG rats also displayed reduced nitric oxide (NO) production along with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; these were corrected by BH4 and either L-NAME or superoxide dismutase, respectively. The protein expression of eNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was increased in mesenteric arterioles from MSG rats. Obesity/insulin resistance has a detrimental impact on vascular function. Reduced NO bioavailability and increased ROS generation from uncoupled eNOS and imbalanced release of COX products from COX-2 play a critical role in the development of these vascular alterations.Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 10/2011; 21(10):808-16. · 3.52 Impact Factor