Mutations in each of the five subunits of translation initiation factor eIF2B can cause leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter.
ABSTRACT Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter is a recently defined autosomal recessive disorder. The course is chronic progressive with additional episodes of rapid deterioration, provoked by fever and minor head trauma. A previous study showed that mutations in the genes encoding the epsilon- or the beta-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2B, a complex consisting of five subunits, cause the disease in most patients. Seven unsolved patients remained. The unsolved patients were investigated by mutation analysis of the genes encoding the alpha-, gamma-, and delta-subunit of eIF2B and the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of eIF2, because phosphorylation of this latter subunit regulates eIF2B activity. Mutations were found in the genes encoding the alpha- (1 patient), gamma- (2 patients), and delta-subunits (2 patients) of eIF2B, but no mutations were found in the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of eIF2. In 2, both less typical patients, no mutations were found. Mutations in all five genes eIF2B subunit genes can cause VWM. eIF2B is essential for the initiation of translation of RNA into protein and is involved in regulation of the process, especially under circumstances of stress, such as fever. A defect in eIF2B may explain the sensitivity to stress factors in vanishing white matter patients.
Article: CSF N-Glycan Profiles to Investigate Biomarkers in Brain Developmental Disorders: Application to Leukodystrophies Related to eIF2B Mutations.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Primary or secondary abnormalities of glycosylation have been reported in various brain diseases. Decreased asialotransferrin to sialotransferrin ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a diagnostic marker of leukodystrophies related to mutations of genes encoding translation initiation factor, EIF2B. We investigated the CSF glycome of eIF2B-mutated patients and age-matched normal individuals in order to further characterize the glycosylation defect for possible use as a biomarker. We conducted a differential N-glycan analysis using MALDI-TOF/MS of permethylated N-glycans in CSF and plasma of controls and eIF2B-mutated patients. We found in control CSF that tri-antennary/bisecting and high mannose structures were highly represented in samples obtained between 1 to 5 years of age, whereas fucosylated, sialylated structures were predominant at later age. In CSF, but not in plasma, of eIF2B-mutated patient samples, we found increased relative intensity of bi-antennary structures and decreased tri-antennary/bisecting structures in N-glycan profiles. Four of these structures appeared to be biomarker candidates of glycomic profiles of eIF2B-related disorders. Our results suggest a dynamic development of normal CSF N-glycan profiles from high mannose type structures to complex sialylated structures that could be correlated with postnatal brain maturation. CSF N-glycome analysis shows relevant quantitative changes associated with eIF2B related disorders. This approach could be applied to other neurological disorders involving developmental gliogenesis/synaptogenesis abnormalities.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42688. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modern dog breeds display traits that are either breed-specific or shared by a few breeds as a result of genetic bottlenecks during the breed creation process and artificial selection for breed standards. Selective sweeps in the genome result from strong selection and can be detected as a reduction or elimination of polymorphism in a given region of the genome. Extended regions of homozygosity, indicative of selective sweeps, were identified in a genome-wide scan dataset of 25 Boxers from the United Kingdom genotyped at ~20,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These regions were further examined in a second dataset of Boxers collected from a different geographical location and genotyped using higher density SNP arrays (~170,000 SNPs). A selective sweep previously associated with canine brachycephaly was detected on chromosome 1. A novel selective sweep of over 8 Mb was observed on chromosome 26 in Boxer and for a shorter region in English and French bulldogs. It was absent in 171 samples from eight other dog breeds and 7 Iberian wolf samples. A region of extended increased heterozygosity on chromosome 9 overlapped with a previously reported copy number variant (CNV) which was polymorphic in multiple dog breeds. A selective sweep of more than 8 Mb on chromosome 26 was identified in the Boxer genome. This sweep is likely caused by strong artificial selection for a trait of interest and could have inadvertently led to undesired health implications for this breed. Furthermore, we provide supporting evidence for two previously described regions: a selective sweep on chromosome 1 associated with canine brachycephaly and a CNV on chromosome 9 polymorphic in multiple dog breeds.BMC Genomics 07/2011; 12:339. · 4.07 Impact Factor
Article: Poor Cerebral Inflammatory Response in eIF2B Knock-In Mice: Implications for the Aetiology of Vanishing White Matter Disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mutations in any of the five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) can lead to an inherited chronic-progressive fatal brain disease of unknown aetiology termed leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM). VWM is one of the most prevalent childhood white matter disorders, which markedly deteriorates after inflammation or exposure to other stressors. eIF2B is a major housekeeping complex that governs the rate of global protein synthesis under normal and stress conditions. A previous study demonstrated that Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice suffer delayed white matter development and fail to recover from cuprizone-induced demyelination, although eIF2B enzymatic activity in the mutant brain is reduced by merely 20%. Poor astrogliosis was observed in Eif2b5(R132H/R132H) mice brain in response to systemic stress induced by peripheral injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Even with normal rates of protein synthesis under normal conditions, primary astrocytes and microglia isolated from mutant brains fail to adequately synthesise and secrete cytokines in response to LPS treatment despite proper induction of cytokine mRNAs. The mild reduction in eIF2B activity prevents the appropriate increase in translation rates upon exposure to the inflammatory stressor LPS. The data underscore the importance of fully-functional translation machinery for efficient cerebral inflammatory response upon insults. It highlights the magnitude of proficient translation rates in restoration of brain homeostasis via microglia-astrocyte crosstalk. This study is the first to suggest the involvement of microglia in the pathology of VWM disease. Importantly, it rationalises the deterioration of clinical symptoms upon exposure of VWM patients to physiological stressors and provides possible explanation for their high phenotypic variability.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e46715. · 4.09 Impact Factor