Usefulness of monitoring HIV drug resistance and adherence in individuals failing highly active antiretroviral therapy: a randomized study (ARGENTA).
ABSTRACT To establish the influence of genotypic resistance-guided treatment decisions and patient-reported adherence on the virological and immunological responses in patients failing a potent antiretroviral regimen in a randomized, controlled trial in a tertiary care infectious diseases department.
A total of 174 patients with virological failure were randomly assigned to receive standard of care (SOC) or additional genotypic resistance information (G). Adherence was measured by a self-administered questionnaire.
Primary endpoints were the proportion with HIV-RNA < 500 copies/ml at 3 and 6 months by intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary endpoints were changes from baseline HIV-RNA levels and CD4 cell counts.
At entry, 25% had failed three or more highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens and 41% three drug classes; there were more resistance mutations in G. In 127 evaluable questionnaires, 43% reported last missed dose during the previous week. At 3 months, 11 of 89 patients (12%) in SOC and 23 of 85 (27%) in G had HIV-RNA < 500 copies/ml (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.12-6.26); the relative proportions were 17 and 21% at 6 months. CD4 cell changes did not differ between arms. Six month CD4 cell changes were +62 in adherent and -13 cells/microl in non-adherent patients (P < 0.01). Being assigned to G, good adherence, previous history of virological success, fewer experienced HAART regimens and lower baseline viral load were independently predictive of 3 month virological success.
The virological benefit of genotype-guided treatment decisions in heavily pre-exposed patients was short term. Patients adherence and residual treatment options influenced outcomes.
- SourceAvailable from: Huldrych F Günthard[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The success of combination antiretroviral therapy is limited by the evolutionary escape dynamics of HIV-1. We used Isotonic Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (I-CBNs), a class of probabilistic graphical models, to describe this process. We employed partial order constraints among viral resistance mutations, which give rise to a limited set of mutational pathways, and we modeled phenotypic drug resistance as monotonically increasing along any escape pathway. Using this model, the individualized genetic barrier (IGB) to each drug is derived as the probability of the virus not acquiring additional mutations that confer resistance. Drug-specific IGBs were combined to obtain the IGB to an entire regimen, which quantifies the virus' genetic potential for developing drug resistance under combination therapy. The IGB was tested as a predictor of therapeutic outcome using between 2,185 and 2,631 treatment change episodes of subtype B infected patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study Database, a large observational cohort. Using logistic regression, significant univariate predictors included most of the 18 drugs and single-drug IGBs, the IGB to the entire regimen, the expert rules-based genotypic susceptibility score (GSS), several individual mutations, and the peak viral load before treatment change. In the multivariate analysis, the only genotype-derived variables that remained significantly associated with virological success were GSS and, with 10-fold stronger association, IGB to regimen. When predicting suppression of viral load below 400 cps/ml, IGB outperformed GSS and also improved GSS-containing predictors significantly, but the difference was not significant for suppression below 50 cps/ml. Thus, the IGB to regimen is a novel data-derived predictor of treatment outcome that has potential to improve the interpretation of genotypic drug resistance tests.PLoS Computational Biology 08/2013; 9(8):3203-. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We modified the Abbott diagnostics HIV-1 Viroseq version 2 assay™ in order to detect the presence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in patients with viraemia below 1000 copies/ml of plasma.One hundred and forty-four patients with a detectable HIV-1 plasma viral load below 1000 copies/ml were selected and HIV-1 genetic analysis carried out using a modification of the Abbott Diagnostics Viroseq 2.0 assay™. The procedure differs from the standard protocol in that a nested PCR amplification step was introduced. The oligonucleotide primers for the first round of PCR were those supplied in the RT-PCR module of the kit. The nested PCR primers were primers A and H taken from the sequencing module. One hundred and twenty-eight out of 144 (89%) plasma samples with an HIV-1 viral load of less than 1000 copies/ml (ranging from 54 to 992 copies) were successfully sequenced. HIV-1 genotypes were obtained from 68 out of 81 (84%) samples with a viral load of greater than 50 but less than 300 copies/ml and 60/63 (95%) of samples with a viral load of greater than 300 but less than 1000 copies/ml. Serial dilution of a sample with a high viral load did not affect the detection of resistance mutations. Multiple sequencing of samples with low viral load did not result in detection of additional mutations, although, in one sample the K103N mutation was detected in 3/6 replicates while wild-type was detected in 2/6 and a mixture of wild-type/mutant in 1/6. Samples from patients infected with both clade B and non-B clades of HIV-1 could be genotyped at low copy number. Modification of the Abbott Viroseq assay allows reproducible sequencing of the HIV-1 genome from patients with low, but detectable, plasma virus burden.Journal of Virological Methods 08/2004; 119(2):73-78. · 1.88 Impact Factor