Turning on the Arp2/3 complex at atomic resolution.
Department of Chemistry, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.Structure (Impact Factor: 5.99). 03/2002; 10(2):131-5. DOI:10.1016/S0969-2126(02)00712-8
ABSTRACT The recently published 2 A X-ray crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex gives us atomic scale insight into Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation, while cryo-EM work and functional studies begin to fill in exciting mechanistic details.
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ABSTRACT: The actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 are part of a seven-protein complex which is localized in the lamellipodia of a variety of cell types, and in actin-rich spots of unknown function. The Arp2/3 complex enhances actin nucleation and causes branching and crosslinking of actin filaments in vitro; in vivo it is thought to drive the formation of lamellipodia and to be a control center for actin-based motility. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, is an adaptor protein implicated in the transmission of signals from tyrosine kinase receptors and small GTPases to the actin cytoskeleton. Scar1 is a member of a new family of proteins related to WASP, and it may also have a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Scar1 is the human homologue of Dictyostelium Scar1, which is thought to connect G-protein-coupled receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. The mammalian Scar family contains at least four members. We have examined the relationships between WASP, Scar1, and the Arp2/3 complex. We have identified WASP and its relative Scar1 as proteins that interact with the Arp2/3 complex. We have used deletion analysis to show that both WASP and Scar1 interact with the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex through their carboxyl termini. Overexpression of carboxy-terminal fragments of Scar1 or WASP in cells caused a disruption in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and, concomitantly, induced a complete loss of lamellipodia and actin spots. The induction of lamellipodia by platelet-derived growth factor was also suppressed by overexpression of the fragment of Scar1 that binds to the Arp2/3 complex. We have identified a conserved sequence domain in proteins of the WASP family that binds to the Arp2/3 complex. Overexpression of this domain in cells disrupts the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and inhibits lamellipodia formation. Our data suggest that WASP-related proteins may regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex.Current Biology 01/1998; 8(25):1347-56. · 9.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We review how motile cells regulate actin filament assembly at their leading edge. Activation of cell surface receptors generates signals (including activated Rho family GTPases) that converge on integrating proteins of the WASp family (WASp, N-WASP, and Scar/WAVE). WASP family proteins stimulate Arp2/3 complex to nucleate actin filaments, which grow at a fixed 70 degrees angle from the side of pre-existing actin filaments. These filaments push the membrane forward as they grow at their barbed ends. Arp2/3 complex is incorporated into the network, and new filaments are capped rapidly, so that activated Arp2/3 complex must be supplied continuously to keep the network growing. Hydrolysis of ATP bound to polymerized actin followed by phosphate dissociation marks older filaments for depolymerization by ADF/cofilins. Profilin catalyzes exchange of ADP for ATP, recycling actin back to a pool of unpolymerized monomers bound to profilin and thymosin-beta 4 that is poised for rapid elongation of new barbed ends.Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 02/2000; 29:545-76. · 18.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Arp2/3 complex is an essential component of the yeast actin cytoskeleton that localizes to cortical actin patches. We have isolated and characterized a temperature-sensitive mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe arp2 that displays a defect in cortical actin patch distribution. The arp2(+) gene encodes an essential actin-related protein that colocalizes with actin at the cortical actin patch. Sucrose gradient analysis of the Arp2/3 complex in the arp2-1 mutant indicated that the Arp2p and Arc18p subunits are specifically lost from the complex at restrictive temperature. These results are consistent with immunolocalization studies of the mutant that show that Arp2-1p is diffusely localized in the cytoplasm at restrictive temperature. Interestingly, Arp3p remains localized to the cortical actin patch under the same restrictive conditions, leading to the hypothesis that loss of Arp2p from the actin patch affects patch motility but does not severely compromise its architecture. Analysis of the mutant Arp2 protein demonstrated defects in ATP and Arp3p binding, suggesting a possible model for disruption of the complex.Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2000; 10(12):4201-15. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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