Psychological distress in childhood trauma survivors who abuse drugs.
ABSTRACT The relationships between the level of childhood maltreatment and current psychological distress were examined in a community sample of 676 substance abusing men and women using a validated self-report instrument (the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) designed to measure physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Current levels of self-reported psychological distress/symptoms were measured using a 53-item Brief Symptom Inventory. Prevalence of early trauma ranged from 44% for emotional neglect to 65% for sexual abuse. The severity of all forms of childhood maltreatment were directly associated with current psychological distress.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationships between a history of childhood maltreatment, the frequency of disturbing dreams, their associated distress, and the presence of psychopathology in 352 female undergraduate volunteers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing dream recall, bad dream and nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, psychological well-being, and history of childhood trauma. Four groups were investigated based on the type and severity of childhood maltreatments experienced. Women reporting more severe forms of maltreatment reported higher frequencies of disturbing dreams, higher levels of nightmare distress, and greater psychopathology. Results showed that nightmare distress explains frequency of disturbed dreaming beyond the effect of psychopathology and childhood trauma. The results highlight the importance of assessing waking distress associated with disturbing dreams independently from their actual incidence.The Journal of nervous and mental disease 09/2013; 201(9):767-72. · 1.77 Impact Factor
- Sleep Medicine Clinics 01/2010; 5(2):249-260.
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ABSTRACT: The current study investigated the heterogeneity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a sample of 382 inner-city, predominantly African American male substance users through the use of latent class analysis. A 4-class model was statistically preferred, with 1 class interpreted to be a baseline class, 1 class interpreted to be a high-BPD class, and 2 classes interpreted as intermediate classes. As a secondary goal, we examined the resulting BPD classes with respect to relevant clinical correlates, including temperamental vulnerabilities (affective instability, impulsivity, and interpersonal instability), childhood emotional abuse, drug choice, and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders. The high-BPD class evidenced the highest levels of the temperamental vulnerabilities and environmental stressors, the baseline class evidenced the lowest levels, and the 2 intermediate classes fell in between. In addition, the high-BPD class had a higher probability of cocaine and alcohol dependence, as well as mood and anxiety disorders, than did the baseline class. Rates of alcohol use and mood disorders for the intermediate classes fell in between the high-BPD and the baseline classes. Results are discussed in relation to the current diagnostic conceptualization of BPD.Psychological Assessment 06/2010; 22(2):233-45. · 2.99 Impact Factor