Biomechanical comparison of the sandblasted and acid-etched and the machined and acid-etched titanium surface for dental implants.
ABSTRACT To make a direct biomechanical comparison between the sandblasted and acid-etched surface (SLA) and the machined and acid-etched surface (MA), a well-established animal model for implant removal torque testing was employed, using a split-mouth experimental design. All implants had an identical cylindrical solid-screw shape with the standard ITI thread configuration, without any macroscopic retentive structures. After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of bone healing, removal torque testing was performed to evaluate the interfacial shear strength of each surface type. Results showed that the SLA surface was more powerful in enhancing the interfacial shear strength of implants in comparison with the MA surface. Removal torque values of the SLA-surfaced implants were about 30% higher than those of the MA-surfaced implants (p = 0.002) except at 4 weeks, when the difference was at the threshold of statistical significance (p = 0.0519). The mean removal torque values for the SLA implants were 1.5074 Nm at 4 weeks, 1.8022 Nm at 8 weeks, and 1.7130 Nm at 12 weeks; and correspondingly, 1.1924 Nm, 1.3092 Nm, and 1.3226 Nm for the MA implants. It can be concluded that the SLA surface achieves a better bone anchorage than the MA surface, and that sandblasting before acid etching has a beneficial effect on the interfacial shear strength. As regards the bone-implant interfacial stiffness calculated from the torque-rotation curve, the SLA implants showed an overall more than 5% higher stiffness compared with the MA implants, although the difference did not reach the statistical significance level.
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ABSTRACT: During 1992, 100 Minimatic screw implants made of titanium alloy (titanium-aluminum-vanadium) with a machined rough acid-etched surface were placed in 63 consecutive partially edentulous patients. At second-stage surgery, which was performed after a 4- to 6-month healing period, none of the implants showed signs of mobility, peri-implant infection, or bone loss from the crest of the ridge. Each patient was restored with a fixed prosthesis and reexamined every 3 months during the first year. Periapical radiographs were taken annually up to 5 years. These revealed no signs of peri-implant radiolucencies involving any of the implants, and mean alveolar bone loss was less than 1 mm at the 5-year examination. One implant was considered a late failure because of a peri-implant infection that developed during the first year, although the implant was still functional at year 5. Another patient with 2 implants dropped out during the fifth year of the study, although both implants had been considered successful up to that point. Based on annual measurements of Plaque Index, Sulcular Bleeding index, pocket probing depth, attachment level, width of keratinized mucosa, and hand-tested mobility, 97 of the remaining 98 implants were considered successful, resulting in a 98% success rate. This 5-year study confirms that Minimatic machined acid-etched implants provide predictable osseointegration results and supports the conclusion of other reports that titanium implants with a rough surface can fulfill the requirements of Albrektsson et al (1986) for implant success.The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 14(3):384-91. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare side-by-side two different titanium screw-type implants in the maxillae of miniature pigs. The test implants had a machined and acid-etched surface (Osseotite) whereas the control implants were sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA). After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of healing, removal torque testing was performed to evaluate the shear strength of the bone-implant interface for both implant types. The results demonstrated significant differences between both implant types (P < .01). Osseotite implants revealed mean removal torque values (RTV) of 62.5 Ncm at 4 weeks, 87.6 Ncm at 8 weeks, and 95.7 Ncm at 12 weeks of healing. In contrast, the SLA implants demonstrated mean RTV of 109.6 Ncm, 196.7 Ncm, and 186.8 Ncm at corresponding healing periods. The mean RTV for SLA implants was 75% to 125% higher than for Osseotite implants up to 3 months of healing.The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 13(5):611-9. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study reviews the long-term outcome of prostheses and fixtures (implants) in 759 totally edentulous jaws of 700 patients. A total of 4,636 standard fixtures were placed and followed according to the osseointegration method for a maximum of 24 years by the original team at the University of Göteborg. Standardized annual clinical and radiographic examinations were conducted as far as possible. A lifetable approach was applied for statistical analysis. Sufficient numbers of fixtures and prostheses for a detailed statistical analysis were present for observation times up to 15 years. More than 95% of maxillae had continuous prosthesis stability at 5 and 10 years, and at least 92% at 15 years. The figure for mandibles was 99% at all time intervals. Calculated from the time of fixture placement, the estimated survival rates for individual fixtures in the maxilla were 84%, 89%, and 92% at 5 years; 81% and 82% at 10 years; and 78% at 15 years. In the mandible they were 91%, 98%, and 99% at 5 years; 89% and 98% at 10 years; and 86% at 15 years. (The different percentages at 5 and 10 years refer to results for different routine groups of fixtures with 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and 1 to 5 years of observation time, respectively.) The results of this study concur with multicenter and earlier results for the osseointegration method.The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 02/1990; 5(4):347-59. · 1.91 Impact Factor