Identification and in vitro expression of novel CDH23 mutations of patients with Usher syndrome type 1D.
ABSTRACT Usher syndrome (USH) is a group of autosomal recessive sensory disorders characterized by progressive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and sensorineural hearing impairment. Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1), with additional vestibular dysfunction, represents the most severe form and shows extensive allelic and non-allelic heterogeneity. At least six USH1 loci exist (USH1A-F), and four of the underlying genes have been identified. Recently, a novel gene, cadherin 23 (CDH23), was shown to be mutated in USH1D. We performed mutation screening by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing on 33 USH1 patients previously excluded for USH1B and USH1C. On eight disease alleles of four patients, four different mutations were identified, three of them novel (c.6933delT, c.5712G-->A, and IVS45-9G-->A). Exon trapping experiments were performed with two mutations. In the case of a c.5712G-->A transition of the last base of exon 42, that is an apparently synonymous mutation, skipping of exon 42 was observed. By the mutation IVS45-9G-->A, a novel splice acceptor site was created and the insertion of 7 intronic bp was observed. Two mutations, IVS45-9G-->A and the previously described IVS51+5G-->A, were each found in more than one patient. Haplotype analysis by SNPs within CDH23 suggests common ancestors for each of the mutations. Among the total of 52 USH1 cases studied by us, CDH23 mutations account for about 10% of all disease alleles. Our results further suggest that in patients with a typical USH1D phenotype, a significant portion of CDH23 mutations leads to premature termination of translation or loss of numerous amino acid residues, with a high frequency of changes causing aberrant splicing of CDH23 mRNA.
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in genes coding for cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15 cause deafness in both mice and humans. Here, we provide evidence that mutations at these two cadherin loci can interact to cause hearing loss in digenic heterozygotes of both species. Using a classical genetic approach, we generated mice that were heterozygous for both Cdh23 and Pcdh15 mutations on a uniform C57BL/6J background. Significant levels of hearing loss were detected in these mice when compared to age-matched single heterozygous animals or normal controls. Cytoarchitectural defects in the cochlea of digenic heterozygotes, including degeneration of the stereocilia and a base-apex loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion cells, were consistent with the observed age-related hearing loss of these mice beginning with the high frequencies. In humans, we also have obtained evidence for a digenic inheritance of a USH1 phenotype in three unrelated families with mutations in CDH23 and PCDH15. Altogether, our data indicate that CDH23 and PCDH15 play an essential long-term role in maintaining the normal organization of the stereocilia bundle.Human Molecular Genetics 01/2005; 14(1):103-11. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddi010 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that associates sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. To date, 10 genes have been associated with the disease, making its molecular diagnosis based on Sanger sequencing, expensive and time-consuming. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to develop a molecular diagnostics method for Usher syndrome, based on targeted next generation sequencing.MethodsA custom HaloPlex panel for Illumina platforms was designed to capture all exons of the 10 known causative Usher syndrome genes (MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, CIB2, USH2A, GPR98, DFNB31 and CLRN1), the two Usher syndrome-related genes (HARS and PDZD7) and the two candidate genes VEZT and MYO15A. A cohort of 44 patients suffering from Usher syndrome was selected for this study. This cohort was divided into two groups: a test group of 11 patients with known mutations and another group of 33 patients with unknown mutations.ResultsForty USH patients were successfully sequenced, 8 USH patients from the test group and 32 patients from the group composed of USH patients without genetic diagnosis. We were able to detect biallelic mutations in one USH gene in 22 out of 32 USH patients (68.75%) and to identify 79.7% of the expected mutated alleles. Fifty-three different mutations were detected. These mutations included 21 missense, 8 nonsense, 9 frameshifts, 9 intronic mutations and 6 large rearrangements.Conclusions Targeted next generation sequencing allowed us to detect both point mutations and large rearrangements in a single experiment, minimizing the economic cost of the study, increasing the detection ratio of the genetic cause of the disease and improving the genetic diagnosis of Usher syndrome patients.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2014; 9(1):168. DOI:10.1186/s13023-014-0168-7 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recessive mutant alleles of MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, and PCDH15 cause non-syndromic deafness or type 1 Usher syndrome (USH1) characterised by deafness, vestibular areflexia, and vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa. For CDH23, encoding cadherin 23, non-syndromic DFNB12 deafness is associated primarily with missense mutations hypothesised to have residual function. In contrast, homozygous nonsense, frame shift, splice site, and some missense mutations of CDH23, all of which are presumably functional null alleles, cause USH1D. The phenotype of a CDH23 compound heterozygote for a DFNB12 allele in trans configuration to an USH1D allele is not known and cannot be predicted from current understanding of cadherin 23 function in the retina and vestibular labyrinth. To address this issue, this study sought CDH23 compound heterozygotes by sequencing this gene in USH1 probands, and families segregating USH1D or DFNB12. Five non-syndromic deaf individuals were identified with normal retinal and vestibular phenotypes that segregate compound heterozygous mutations of CDH23, where one mutation is a known or predicted USH1 allele. One DFNB12 allele in trans configuration to an USH1D allele of CDH23 preserves vision and balance in deaf individuals, indicating that the DFNB12 allele is phenotypically dominant to an USH1D allele. This finding has implications for genetic counselling and the development of therapies for retinitis pigmentosa in Usher syndrome. ACCESSION NUMBERS: The cDNA and protein Genbank accession numbers for CDH23 and cadherin 23 used in this paper are AY010111.2 and AAG27034.2, respectively.Journal of Medical Genetics 09/2011; 48(11):767-75. DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100262 · 5.64 Impact Factor