The ground-state rotational spectra of eight isotopomers of a complex formed by water and dibromine in the gas phase were observed by pulsed-jet, Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectroscopic constants B(0), C(0), delta(J), delta(JK), chi(aa)(Br(x)) (x=i for inner, o for outer), [chi(bb)(Br(x))-chi(cc)(Br(x))] and M(bb)(Br(x)) were determined for H(2)O...(79)Br(79)Br, H(2)O...(81)Br(79)Br, H(2)O...(79)Br(81)Br, H(2)O...(81)Br(81)Br, D(2)O...(79)Br(81)Br and D(2)O...(81)Br(81)Br. For the isotopomers HDO...(79)Br(81)Br and HDO...(81)Br(81)Br, only (B(0) + C(0))/2, delta(J), the chi(aa)(Br(x)) and M(bb)(Br(x)) were determinable. The spectroscopic constants were interpreted on the basis of several models of the complex to give information about its geometry, binding strength and the extent of electronic rearrangement on complex formation. The molecule H(2)O...Br(2) has C(s) symmetry with a pyramidal configuration at O. The zero-point effective quantities r(O...Br(i))=2.8506(1) A and phi(0)=46.8(1), where phi is the angle between the C(2) axis of H(2)O and the O...Br-Br internuclear axis, were obtained under the assumption of monomer geometries unchanged by complexation. Ab initio calculations, carried out at the aug-cc-pVDZ/MP2 level of theory, gave the equilibrium values r(e)(O...Br(i))=2.7908 A and phi(e)=45.7 degrees and confirmed the collinearity of the O...Br-Br nuclei. The potential energy function V(phi), also determined ab initio, showed that the wavenumber required for inversion of the configuration at O in the zero-point state is only 9 cm(-1). By interpreting the Br nuclear quadrupole coupling constants, the fractions delta(O-->Br(i))=0.004(5) and delta (Br(i)-->Br(o))=0.050(2) of an electron were determined to be transferred from O to Br(i) and Br(i) to Br(o), respectively, when the complex is formed. The complex is relatively weak, as indicated by the small value k(sigma)=9.8(2) N m(-1) of the intermolecular stretching force constant obtained from delta(J). A comparison of the properties, similarly determined, of H(2)O...F(2), H(2)O...Cl(2), H(2)O...Br(2), H(2)O...BrCl, H(2)O...ClF and H(2)O...ICl is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In both water and in ice, the absorption spectra of bromine are dramatically broadened and blueshifted, and all fluorescence is quenched. Time resolved, electronically resonant transient grating measurements are carried out to characterize the vibronic dynamics of the trapped molecule in its electronic B(3Pi0u) state in ice. Independent of the initial excitation energy, after the first half-period of motion, a vibrational packet is observed to oscillate near the bottom of the potential, near nu=1. The oscillations undergo a chirped decay to a terminal frequency of 169 cm(-1) on a time scale of taunu=1240 fs, to form the stationary nu=0 level. The electronic population in the B state decays in taue=1500 fs. Adiabatic following to the cage-compression coordinate is a plausible origin of the chirp. Analysis of the absorption spectrum is provided to recognize that solvent coordinates are directly excited in the process. The observed blueshift of the absorption is modeled by considering the Br2-OH2 complex. Two-dimensional simulations, that explicitly include the solvent coordinate, reproduce both the time data and the absorption spectrum. The observed sharp vibrational recursions can be explained by overdamped motion along the solvent coordinate, and wave packet focusing by fast dissipation during the first half-period of motion of the molecular coordinate.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 06/2006; 124(20):204507. DOI:10.1063/1.2201749 · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four-wave mixing measurements are carried out on I(2)-doped ice, prepared by quench condensing the premixed vapor at 128 K. Coherent vibrational dynamics is observed in two distinct ensembles. The first is ascribed to trapping in asymmetric polar cages in which, as in water, the valence absorption of the molecule is blueshifted by 3500 cm(-1), predissociation of the B state is complete upon the first extension of the molecular bond, and the vibrational frequency in the ground state (observed through coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) is reduced by 6.5%. The effect is ascribed to polarization of the molecule. The implied local field and the ionicity of the molecule are extracted, to conclude that the molecule is oxygen bonded to one water molecule on one side and hydrogen bonded on the other side. The second ensemble is characterized by the transient grating signal, which shows coherent vibrational dynamics on the B state. The small predissociation rate in this site suggests a symmetric cage in which the local electric field undergoes effective cancellation; and consistent with this, the extracted blueshift of the valence transition in this site (approximately 1500 cm(-1)) coincides with that observed in clathrate hydrates of iodine. Remarkably, in this site, the vibrational period of the B state packet coherently stretches from an initial value of 245 fs to 325 fs in the course of five oscillations (1.3 ps), indicative of vibrationally adiabatic following of the cage expansion. The dynamics is characteristic of a molecule trapped in a tight symmetric cage, with a soft cage coordinate that relaxes without eliciting elastic response. Enclathration in low-density amorphous ice is concluded.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 01/2008; 127(21):214511. DOI:10.1063/1.2803922 · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peculiar propensity of water to have a high internal dynamic activity in its molecular complexes with organic molecules is described in this paper. Often, the corresponding large amplitude motions are reflected in the tunnelling splittings of the rotational transitions which, in turn, provide information for the determination of the potential energy surfaces and of the noncovalent interactions of water with a variety of atoms and/or functional groups. A classification of this kind of molecular complexes is given, also in relation to the tunnelling features of the rotational spectra. As a specific example, the rotational spectrum of tert-butylalcohol-water, investigated by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, is reported. Details are given of the large amplitude motions which take place in the adduct, the internal rotation of the hydroxyl group and the oscillations of the water molecule, by interpreting the experimental data with a flexible model.
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