Reasons for suicide attempts and non suicidal self-injury in women with Borderline Personality Disorder

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-1525, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.86). 03/2002; 111(1):198-202. DOI: 10.1037/0021-843X.111.1.198
Source: PubMed


Self-reported reasons for suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-injury were examined using the Parasuicide History Interview within a sample of chronically suicidal women meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (N = 75). Overall, reasons given for suicide attempts differed from reasons for nonsuicidal self-injury. Nonsuicidal acts were more often reported as intended to express anger, punish oneself, generate normal feelings, and distract oneself, whereas suicide attempts were more often reported as intended to make others better off. Almost all participants reported that both types of parasuicide were intended to relieve negative emotions. It is likely that suicidal and nonsuicidal parasuicide have multiple intents and functions.

Download full-text


Available from: Marsha M Linehan,
1,493 Reads
  • Source
    • "The physical sensation halts the emotional cascade and provides emotional relief. People with BPD engage in dysregulated behaviour and 55% of their nonsuicidal behaviour has been implicated due to their affect relieving properties (Brown et al, 2002). This dysregulated behaviour interferes with the rumination process and stops the build up of negative affect. "
    [Show description] [Hide description]
    DESCRIPTION: Selby’s (2008) emotional cascade model suggests that Borderline Personality Traits are linked to both rumination and dysregulated behaviours. The model also linked Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) to bulimia; however bulimia consists of two dysregulated behaviours (binge eating and purging) and one dysregulated cognition (weight and shape concern). To understand whether BPD is also linked to dysregulated cognitions this current study aimed to investigate bulimia in terms of its three separate symptoms (weight and shape concern, binge eating and purging). The current study used 104 university students to fill in a self report pack measuring BPD, rumination, weight and shape concern, purging and binge eating. These scores were analysed using the Baron and Kenny (1986) steps for mediation. From the analyses three models were created to display the relationship between BPD (predictor), rumination (mediator) and the three symptoms of bulimia (criterion). Of the three models only one was significant which was binge eating, which indicates that rumination mediates the relationship between BPD and binge eating. To conclude, this study only partially supports Selby’s (2008) emotional cascade model as one dysregulated behaviour was significant whereas Selby has linked both binge eating and purging to BPD.
    • "The authors have proposed and assessed a model with four different functions divided in automatic reinforcement and social reinforcement. Automatic reinforcement function can serve the purposes of removing or creating feelings (Brown et al., 2002 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate, self-inflicted destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent and an important clinical phenomenon. Rates of NSSI appear to be disproportionately high in adolescents and young adults, and is a risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior. The present study reports the psychometric properties of the Impulse, Self-harm and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire for Adolescents (ISSIQ-A), a measure designed to comprehensively assess the impulsivity, NSSI behaviors and suicide ideation. An additional module of this questionnaire assesses the functions of NSSI. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the scale on 1722 youths showed items' suitability and confirmed a model of four different dimensions (Impulse, Self-harm, Risk-behavior and Suicide ideation) with good fit and validity. Further analysis showed that youth׳s engagement in self-harm may exert two different functions: to create or alleviate emotional states, and to influence social relationships. Our findings contribute to research and assessment on non-suicidal self-injury, suggesting that the ISSIQ-A is a valid and reliable measure to assess impulse, self-harm and suicidal thoughts, in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    04/2015; 227(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.01.031
  • Source
    • "Second, we hypothesize that individuals with a history of suicide attempt will report engaging in NSSI for a greater number of reasons compared to those without any STBs. Third, we expect that engaging in NSSI to cope with and avoid negative emotions (Brown et al., 2002; Chapman and Dixon-Gordon, 2007) and dissociative states (Orbach, 2003) will demonstrate stronger associations with suicide attempts than with suicide plans or ideation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research has found associations between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), yet the nature of this relationship remains equivocal. The goal of the present study was to examine how lifetime NSSI frequency and individual NSSI functions relate to a history of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Data were collected via a large (N = 13,396) web-based survey of university students between the ages of 18 and 29. After demographics and psychiatric conditions were controlled for, we found a positive curvilinear relationship between NSSI frequency and each of the suicide outcomes. When examined among those with STBs, bipolar disorder and problematic substance use remained positively associated with risk for suicide attempt, but not NSSI. Analyses of individual NSSI functions showed differential associations with STBs of varying severity. Specifically, nearly every NSSI function was significantly related to suicide attempt, with functions related to avoiding committing suicide, coping with self-hatred, and feeling generation (anti-dissociation) showing the strongest risks for suicide attempt. From both clinical and research perspectives, these findings suggest the importance of assessing multiple reasons for engaging in self-injury.
    Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 225(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.12.026 · 2.47 Impact Factor
Show more