Should we treat concussion pharmacologically? The need for evidence based pharmacological treatment for the concussed athlete.

British Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.17). 03/2002; 36(1):3-5.
Source: PubMed


Available from: Paul McCrory, Jun 12, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Several studies have demonstrated that age and sex may influence concussion recovery time frames, with female athletes and adolescents being potentially more susceptible to a protracted recovery course. Currently, limited work has examined the influence sex may have on concussion management strategies and treatment interventions, especially for younger individuals suffering persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. Hypothesis: Female athletes are prescribed more treatment interventions than male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for adolescent athletes presenting to a sports medicine concussion clinic between September 2010 and September 2011. Results: A total of 266 adolescent athletes were evaluated and treated for concussion. Female athletes had a longer recovery course (P = 0.002) and required more treatment interventions (P < 0.001) for their symptoms and dysfunction. Female athletes were more likely to require academic accommodations (P < 0.001), vestibular therapy (P < 0.001), or medication (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Medical providers should be aware that during the recovery course, adolescent female athletes may require a management plan that will most likely include additional treatment interventions beyond the standard cognitive and physical rest. Clinical Relevance: Treatment interventions are more commonly prescribed for adolescent female athletes than for adolescent male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. This highlights the need for identifying evidence-based clinical management guidelines that focus on sex, especially when dealing with persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions.
    Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 01/2015; 7(1):52-57. DOI:10.1177/1941738114555075
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    ABSTRACT: Sport-related concussion is a "hot topic" in the media and in medicine. It is a common injury that is likely underreported by pediatric and adolescent athletes. Football has the highest incidence of concussion, but girls have higher concussion rates than boys do in similar sports. A clear understanding of the definition, signs, and symptoms of concussion is necessary to recognize it and rule out more severe intracranial injury. Concussion can cause symptoms that interfere with school, social and family relationships, and participation in sports. Recognition and education are paramount, because although proper equipment, sport technique, and adherence to rules of the sport may decrease the incidence or severity of concussions, nothing has been shown to prevent them. Appropriate management is essential for reducing the risk of long-term symptoms and complications. Cognitive and physical rest is the mainstay of management after diagnosis, and neuropsychological testing is a helpful tool in the management of concussion. Return to sport should be accomplished by using a progressive exercise program while evaluating for any return of signs or symptoms. This report serves as a basis for understanding the diagnosis and management of concussion in children and adolescent athletes.
    PEDIATRICS 09/2010; 126(3):597-615. DOI:10.1542/peds.2010-2005 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is a revision and update of the recommendations developed following the 1st (Vienna) and 2nd (Prague) International Symposia on Concussion in Sport. The Zurich Consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the original Vienna and Prague documents and to develop further conceptual understanding of this problem using a formal consensus-based approach. A detailed description of the consensus process is outlined at the end of this document under the "background" section (see Section 11). This document is developed for use by physicians, therapists, certified athletic trainers, health professionals, coaches and other people involved in the care of injured athletes, whether at the recreational, elite, or professional level. While agreement exists pertaining to principal messages conveyed within this document, the authors acknowledge that the science of concussion is evolving, and therefore management and return-to-play (RTP) decisions remain in the realm of clinical judgment on an individualized basis. Readers are encouraged to copy and distribute freely the Zurich Consensus document and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) card, and neither is subject to any copyright restriction. The authors request, however, that the document and/or the SCAT2 card be distributed in their full and complete format.
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