Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder.
ABSTRACT Studies have reported that countries with high rates of fish oil consumption have low rates of depressive disorder. The authors studied a specific omega-3 fatty acid, the ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA), as an adjunct to treatment for depressive episodes occurring in patients with recurrent unipolar depressive disorder who were receiving maintenance antidepressant therapy.
Twenty patients with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder participated in a 4-week, parallel-group, double-blind addition of either placebo or E-EPA to ongoing antidepressant therapy. Seventeen of the patients were women, and three were men.
Highly significant benefits of the addition of the omega-3 fatty acid compared with placebo were found by week 3 of treatment.
It is not possible to distinguish whether E-EPA augments antidepressant action in the manner of lithium or has independent antidepressant properties of its own.
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ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 16.2% and the fourth highest cause of disability globally. It is hypothesized to be a syndromatic manifestation of multiple pathological processes leading to similar clinical manifestation. MDD is associated with at least three categories of peripheral hormone-type factors including neurotrophic factors, proinflammatory cytokines, and processes that impair regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Neuroimaging studies have identified functional abnormalities including subcortical systems associated with reward and emotion processing, medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortical regions and the lateral prefrontal cortical systems involved in cognitive control and voluntary emotion regulation. Studies investigating the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional brain measures show normalization of brain function with return to euthymia. Nevertheless, approximately 50% of patients with MDD will not respond sufficiently and 60 to 70% will not achieve full remission with first-line pharmacotherapy, therefore clinicians strive to improve patient responses through the use of adjunct therapies. This review discusses recent research in the various biological processes associated with MDD as well as recent data in support of the use of adjunctive non-pharmacological therapies including psychotherapy, bibliotherapy, Internet therapy, "natural" or herbal approaches, exercise therapy, and somatic therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 12/2014; 220S1:S34-S44. DOI:10.1016/S0165-1781(14)70004-6 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low consumption of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenonic acids, is linked to delayed brain development and, in late life, increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The current review focuses on cognitive functioning during midlife and summarizes available scientific evidence relevant to the hypothesis that adequate dietary consumption of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is necessary for optimal cognitive performance. Taken together, the findings suggest that raising the currently low consumption among healthy adults may improve some aspects of cognitive performance. Nonetheless, evidence from randomized clinical trials is comparatively sparse and leaves unclear: (a) whether such effects are clinically significant, (b) whether effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA differ, (c) which dimensions of cognitive function are affected, (d) the dose-response relationships, or (e) the time course of the response. Clarification of these issues through both laboratory and clinical investigations is a priority given the broad implications for public health, as well as for military personnel and other positions of high performance demand and responsibility.Military medicine 11/2014; 179(11 Suppl):95-105. DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00168 · 0.77 Impact Factor
Eicosapentaenoic acid: sources, health effects, and role in disease prevention, Edited by Theodore G. Bradley, Francisco P. Vargas, 01/2012: chapter Eicosapentaenoic acid and bone metabolism: pages 47-74; Nova Science Publishers.