Restoration of wild-type conformation and activity of a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53 (p53(V272M)) by the cytoprotective aminothiol WR1065 in the esophageal cancer cell line TE-1.
ABSTRACT The aminothiol WR1065, the active metabolite of the cytoprotector amifostine, exerts its antimutagenic effects through free-radical scavenging and other unknown mechanisms. In an earlier report, we showed that WR1065 activates wild-type p53 in MCF-7 cells, leading to p53-dependent arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. To determine whether WR1065 activates p53 by modulating protein conformation, we analyzed its effects on p53 conformation and activity in the esophageal cancer cell line TE-1. This cell line contains a mutation in codon 272 of p53 (p53(V272M), with methionine instead of a valine), conferring temperature-sensitive properties to the p53 protein. At the nonpermissive temperature (37 degrees C), p53(V272M) adopts the mutant p53 conformation (nonreactive with the antibody PAb1620), does not bind specifically to DNA, and is not activated in response to DNA-damaging treatment. However, treatment with 0.5-4 mM WR1065 partially restored wild-type conformation at 37 degrees C, stimulated DNA binding activity, and increased the expression of p53 target genes WAF-1, GADD45, and MDM2, leading to cell-cycle arrest in G(1). These results suggest that WR1065 activates p53 through a mechanism distinct from DNA-damage signaling, which involves modulation of p53 protein conformation.
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ABSTRACT: Carcinogenesis is a multistage process, involving oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation as well as complex interactions between tumor and host tissues, leading ultimately to an aggressive metastatic phenotype. Among many genetic lesions, mutational inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor, the "guardian of the genome," is the most frequent event found in 50% of human cancers. p53 plays a critical role in tumor suppression mainly by inducing growth arrest, apoptosis, and senescence, as well as by blocking angiogenesis. In addition, p53 generally confers the cancer cell sensitivity to chemoradiation. Thus, p53 becomes the most appealing target for mechanism-driven anti- cancer drug discovery. This review will focus on the approaches currently undertaken to target p53 and its regulators with an overall goal either to activate p53 in cancer cells for killing or to inactivate p53 temporarily in normal cells for chemoradiation protection. The compounds that activate wild type (wt) p53 would have an application for the treat- ment of wt p53-containing human cancer. Likewise, the compounds that change p53 conformation from mutant to wt p53 (p53 reactivation) or that kill the cancer cells with mutant p53 using a synthetic lethal mechanism can be used to selectively treat human cancer harboring a mutant p53. The inhibitors of wt p53 can be used on a temporary basis to reduce the normal cell toxicity derived from p53 activation. Thus, successful development of these three classes of p53 modulators, to be used alone or in combination with chemoradiation, will revolutionize current anticancer thera- pies and benefit cancer patients.Translational oncology 02/2010; 3(1). · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The protein p53 plays an active role in the regulation of cell cycle. In about half of human cancers, the protein is inactivated by mutations located primarily in its DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, a number of these mutations possess temperature-induced DNA-binding characteristics. A striking example is the mutation of Arg248 into glutamine or tryptophan. These mutants are defective for binding to DNA at 310 K although they have been shown to bind specifically to several p53 response elements at sub-physiological temperatures (298–306 K).Methodology/Principal FindingsThis important experimental finding motivated us to examine the effects of temperature on the structure and configuration of R248Q mutant and compare it to the wild type protein. Our aim is to determine how and where structural changes of mutant variants take place due to temperature changes. To answer these questions, we compared the mutant to the wild-type proteins from two different aspects. First, we investigated the systems at the atomistic level through their DNA-binding affinity, hydrogen bond networks and spatial distribution of water molecules. Next, we assessed changes in their long-lived conformational motions at the coarse-grained level through the collective dynamics of their side-chain and backbone atoms separately.Conclusions The experimentally observed effect of temperature on the DNA-binding properties of p53 is reproduced. Analysis of atomistic and coarse-grained data reveal that changes in binding are determined by a few key residues and provide a rationale for the mutant-loss of binding at physiological temperatures. The findings can potentially enable a rescue strategy for the mutant structure.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oral cancer is one of the most commonly found cancers in many South-Asian underdeveloped countries, especially among men in comparison to women. When considering the mortality rate among all types of existing cancers, in India oral cancer is the primary reason for death in men. Some of the major reasons contributing to the high mortality rate are late diagnosis, lack of treatment options and high prevalence of tobacco consumption. Oral cancer is often diagnosed at a stage when cancer cells have already become aggressive and become resistant to standard therapeutic options. Progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis and invasion behold great capability to treat and detect cancer at the molecular level. Dysregulation of apoptosis is one of the most common molecular events known to be associated with the development of oral cancer. In this review, we discuss key apoptotic markers which can be used as prognostic and/or therapeutic targets in oral cancer.Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 05/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor